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What Do Oracle Audit Vault Collection Agents Do?

The Oracle Audit Vault is installed on a server, and collector agents are installed on the hosts running the source databases.  These collector agents communicate with the audit vault server. 

If the collection agents are not active, no audit data is lost, as long as the source database continues to collect the audit data.  When the collection agent is restarted, it will capture the audit data that the source database had collected during the time the collection agent was inactive.

There are three types of agent collectors for Oracle databases.  There are other collectors for third-party database vendors such as SAP Sybase, Microsoft SQL-Server, and IBM DB2.

Audit Value Collectors for Oracle Databases*

Audit Trail Type

How Enabled

Collector Name

Database audit trail

For standard audit records: AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter set to: DB or DB, EXTENDED.

For fine-grained audit records: The audit trail parameter of DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY procedure is set to: DBMS_FGA.DB or DBMS_FGA.DB + DBMS_FGA.EXTENDED.

DBAUD

Operating system audit trail

For standard audit records: AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter is set to: OSXML, or XML, EXTENDED.

For syslog audit trails, AUDIT_TRAIL is set to OS and the AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS parameter is set to TRUE.  In addition, the AUDIT_SYSLOG_LEVEL parameter must be set.

For fine-grained audit records: The audit_trail parameter of the DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY procedure is set to DBMS_FGA.XML or DBMS_FGA.XML + DBMS_FGA.EXTENDED.

OSAUD

Redo log files

The table that you want to audit must be eligible.  See "Creating Capture Rules for Redo Log File Auditing" for more information.

REDO

 *Note if using Oracle 12c; the assumption is that Mixed Mode Unified Auditing is being used

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Audit VaultOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle Mobile iProcurement for Oracle E-Business Suite

OracleApps Epicenter - Wed, 2014-12-17 06:02
Oracle E-Business Suite mobile apps enable users to perform needed tasks or take action on Oracle E-Business Suite transactions from mobile devices, such as iOS smartphones. The Oracle Mobile iProcurement for Oracle E-Business Suite app enables requesters to monitor their requisitions and take action on the go. Using this app, as requesters, you can: Track [...]
Categories: APPS Blogs

Oracle E-Business Suite Database 12c Upgrade Security Notes

When upgrading the Oracle E-Business Suite database to Oracle Database 12c (12.1), there are a number of security considerations and steps that should be included in the upgrade procedure.  Oracle Support Note ID 1524398.1 Interoperability Notes EBS 12.0 or 12.1 with RDBMS 12cR1 details the upgrade steps.  Here, we will document steps that should be included or modified to improve database security.  All references to steps are the steps in Note ID 1524398.1.

Step 8

"While not mandatory for the interoperability of Oracle E-Business Suite with the Oracle Database, customers may choose to apply Database Patch Set Updates (PSU) on their Oracle E-Business Suite Database ...".

After any database upgrade, the latest CPU patch (either PSU or SPU) should always be applied.  The database upgrade only has the latest CPU patch available at the time of release of the database upgrade patch.  In the case of 12.1.0.1, the database upgrade will be current as of July 2013 and be missing the latest five CPU patches.  Database upgrade patches reset the CPU level - so even if you had applied the latest CPU patch prior to the upgrade, the upgrade will revert the CPU patch level to July 2013.

From a security perspective, the latest PSU patch should be considered mandatory.

Step 11

It is important to note from a security perspective that Database Vault must be disable during the upgrade process.  Any protections enabled in Database Vault intended for DBAs will be disabled during the upgrade.

Step 15

The DMSYS schema is no longer used with Oracle E-Business Suite and can be safely dropped.  We recommended you drop the schema as part of this step to reduce the attack surface of the database and remove unused components.  Use the following SQL to remove the DMSYS user --

DROP USER DMSYS CASCADE;
Step 16

As part of the upgrade, it is a good time to review security related initialization parameters are set correctly.  Verify the following parameters are set -

o7_dictionary_accessibility = FALSE
audit_trail = <set to a value other than none>
sec_case_sensitive_logon = TRUE (patch 12964564 may have to be applied)
Step 20

For Oracle E-Business Suite 12.1, the sqlnet_ifile.ora should contain the following parameter to correspond with the initialization parameter sec_case_sensitive_login = true -

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER = 10

 

 

 

Tags: Oracle E-Business SuiteDBA
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

What can the Oracle Audit Vault Protect?

For Oracle database customers the Oracle Audit Vault can protect the following:

  • SQL statements logs – Data Manipulation Language (DML) statement auditing such as when users are attempting to query the database or modify data, using SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.
  • Database Schema Objects changes – Data Definition Language (DDL) statement auditing such as when users create or modify database structures such as tables or views.
  • Database Privileges and Changes – Auditing can be defined for the granting of system privileges, such as SELECT ANY TABLE.  With this kind of auditing, Oracle Audit Vault records SQL statements that require the audited privilege to succeed.
  • Fine-grained audit logs – Fine Grained Auditing activities stored in SYS.FGA_LOG$ such as whether an IP address from outside the corporate network is being used or if specific table columns are being modified.  For example, when the HR.SALARY table is SELECTED using direct database connection (not from the application), a condition could be to log the details of result sets where the PROPOSED_SALARY column is greater than $500,000 USD.
  • Redo log data – Database redo log file data.  The redo log files store all changes that occur in the database.  Every instance of an Oracle database has an associated redo log to protect the database in case of an instance failure.  In Oracle Audit Vault, the capture rule specifies DML and DDL changes that should be checked when Oracle Database scans the database redo log.

The Audit Vault also supports –

  • Database Vault – Database Vault settings stored in DVSYS.AUDIT_TRAIL$ such as Realm audit, factor audit and Rule Audit. 
  • System and SYS – Core changes to the database by privileged users such as DBAs as recorded by AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS.
  • Stored Procedure Auditing – Monitor any changes made to PL/SQL and stored procedures.  Standard reports are provided to stored procedure operations, deleted and created procedures as well as modification history.

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Audit VaultOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

What is the Oracle Audit Vault?

Oracle Audit Vault is aptly named; the Oracle Audit Vault is a vault in which data about audit logs is placed, and it is based on two key concepts.  First, Oracle Audit Vault is designed to secure data at its source.  Second, Oracle Audit Vault is designed to be a data warehouse for audit data. 

The Oracle Audit Vault by itself does not generate audit data.  Before the Oracle Audit Vault can be used, standard auditing needs to be first enabled in the source databases.  Once auditing is enabled in the source databases, the Oracle Audit Vault collects the log and audit data, but does not replicate, copy and/or collect the actual data.  This design premise of securing audit data at the source and not replicating it differentiates the Oracle Audit Vault from other centralized logging solutions. 

Once log and audit data is generated in source databases, Oracle Audit Vault agents are installed on the source database(s) to collect the log and audit data and send it to the Audit Vault server.  By removing the log and audit data from the source system and storing it in the secure Audit Vault server, the integrity of the log and audit can be ensured and proven that it has not been tampered with.  The Oracle Audit Vault is designed to be a secure data warehouse of information of log and audit data.

Application Log and Audit Data

For applications, a key advantage to the Audit Vault’s secure-at-the-source approach is that the Oracle Audit Vault is transparent.  To use the Oracle Audit Vault with applications such as the Oracle E-Business Suite or SAP, standard Oracle database auditing only needs to be enabled on the application log and audit tables.  While auditing the application audit tables might seem duplicative, the advantage is that the integrity of the application audit data can be ensured (proven that it has not been tampered with) while not having to replicate or copy the application log and audit data. 

For example, the Oracle E-Business Suite has the ability to log user login attempts, both successful and unsuccessful.  To protect the E-Business Suite login audit tables, standard Oracle database auditing first needs to be enabled.  An Oracle Audit Vault agent will then collect information about the E-Business Suite login audit tables.  If any deletes or updates occur to these tables, the Audit Vault would then alert and report the incident.  The Audit Vault is transparent to the Oracle E-Business Suite, no patches are required for the Oracle E-Business Suite to be used with the Oracle Audit Vault.

Figure 1 Secure At-Source for Application Log and Audit data

Figure 2 Vault of Log and Audit Data

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Audit Vault
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Presenting at #UKOUG_APPS14 (8th Dec Monday 4:30 PM) : EBS integration with Identity Management

Online Apps DBA - Thu, 2014-12-04 14:05
  I am presenting paper Integrating Oracle E-Business Suite with Identity & Access Management & Lessons Learned with Neha Mittal. Presentation in on 8th December Monday 4:30 PM at Liverpool (UK) covering Overview of Oracle Identity & Access Management  Integration options including OAM (SSO), OIM (Provisioning & Reconciliation) & GRC (SoD) High level lessons learned from our various [...]

This is a content summary only. Visit my website http://onlineAppsDBA.com for full links, other content, and more!
Categories: APPS Blogs

Speaking My Own Language for UKOUG Apps 14 Conference

David Haimes - Mon, 2014-12-01 10:27

Finally I will be at a conference where my British accent, specifically my North West of England accent will be understood.  This will be my first time presenting at the UK OUG Conference and what better place than Liverpool to do it?  Home of my beloved Everton F.C., hometown of my parents and less than 20 miles from where I grew up (People from Liverpool would call me a woollyback) just outside Wigan.  So I will try to remember to shift from the Californian drawl I have picked up over the last 14 years and into my finest scouse accent.

I’m going to be presenting two papers which will showcase not just the powerful features that can revolutionize how you run your business, but also the amazing use experience, mobile and social features available in our ERP Cloud.  Both are on Monday and one is right after the other, so I’m a little bit apprehensive about having 10 minutes to dash from one room to another, get set up and start again.

Here are the details of the sessions, or just search for ‘Haimes’ and you’ll find them. Add them to your agenda, because they are both ‘must not miss’ sessions.

First up, Monday December 8th, 2pm, Hall 11C

Oracle E-Business Suite Coexistence with Fusion Accounting Hub & Implementing a Global Chart of Accounts.

This is a great session with a lot of content to pack in but I know the area well and am very passionate about it and have seen first hand how big a deal this is for businesses.

Then 10 minutes to pack up and dash to Hall 1B for 3pm

Oracle ERP Cloud Service Social & Mobile Demonstrations.

Doing live demos, with multiple different devices to switch between and using a live cloud environment on a conference WiFi make this a logistical challenge.  However when you have a phenomenal user experience, the best thing to do is show it live, so bear with me because we have some pretty cool features to show.


Categories: APPS Blogs

Mandatory Auditing - Oracle 12c Always-On-Auditing

Certainly from an auditing and logging perspective, one of the best new features delivered by Oracle 12c is mandatory auditing of the administrative users such as SYSDBA.  This can be described as ‘always on auditing’.  By default, the following audit related activities are now mandatorily audited -

  • CREATE AUDIT POLICY
  • ALTER AUDIT POLICY
  • DROP AUDIT POLICY
  • AUDIT
  • NOAUDIT
  • EXECUTE of the DBMS_FGA PL/SQL package
  • EXECUTE of the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package
  • All configuration changes that are made to Oracle Database Vault
  • ALTER TABLE attempts on the AUDSYS audit trail table (this table cannot be altered)
  • Top level statements by administrative users SYS, SYSDBA, SYSOPER, SYSASM, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM, until the database opens.  When the database opens, Oracle Database audits these users using the audit configurations in the system.

The audit activity resulting from mandatory auditing can be found in SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL. 

Note when the database is not writable (such as during database mounting), if the database is closed, or if it is read-only, then Oracle writes the audit records to external files in the $ORACLE_BASE/audit/$ORACLE_SID directory. 

Mandatory Auditing

Integrigy Framework Event

  • CREATE AUDIT POLICY
  • ALTER AUDIT POLICY
  • DROP AUDIT POLICY
  • EXECUTE of the DBMS_FGA PL/SQL package
  • EXECUTE of the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package
  • All configuration changes that are made to Oracle Database Vault
  • ALTER TABLE attempts on the AUDSYS audit trail table (remember that this table cannot be altered)

E12 - Modify audit and logging

  • Top level statements by the administrative users SYS, SYSDBA, SYSOPER, SYSASM, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM until the database opens
  • AUDIT
  • NOAUDIT

E11 - Privileged commands

Note: Activity and be found in SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL when in pure mode and to the traditional audit trails in mixed mode.

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

What Is Oracle 12 Unified Auditing? The View UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL with 94 Columns

What is Oracle 12c Unified Auditing? The short answer is the view UNIFED_AUDIT_TRAIL. This view consolidates all logging and auditing information into a single source. Regardless of using either Mixed Mode or Pure Unified Auditing, the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL can be used. 

The key column in SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL is AUDIT_TYPE.  This column shows from which Oracle component the log data originated -

SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL Component Sources

Column AUDIT_TYPE Value

Description

Number of Columns in Table

Standard

Standard auditing including SYS audit records

44

XS

Real Application Security (RAS)and RAS auditing

17

Label Security

Oracle Label Security

14

Datapump

Oracle Data Pump

2

FineGrainedAudit

Fine grained audit(FGA)

1

Database Vault

Data Vault(DV)

10

RMAN_AUDIT

Oracle RMAN

5

Direct path API

SQL*Loader Direct Load

1

 

Total

94

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle 12c Unified Auditing - Mixed Mode

Next in our blog series on Oracle 12 Unified Auditing is a discussion of Mixed Mode. Mixed Mode is the default auditing mode for Oracle 12c.  Oracle describes Mixed Mode auditing as a means of becoming familiar with Unified Auditing prior to migrating to Pure Unified Auditing.  Mixed Mode allows for all traditional, pre-12c log and audit functionality to co-exist with Unified Auditing.  More importantly, Mixed Mode will support any current Syslog-based logging solution.

Mixed mode auditing provides the following key capabilities –

  • All existing (pre-12c) auditing initialization configurations and parameters are used such as AUDIT_TRAILAUDIT_FILE_DESTAUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS, and AUDIT_SYSLOG_LEVEL
  • The format of the audit records remains the same as in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
  • Writes mandatory audit records to the traditional audit trails
  • If the AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS initialization parameter is set to TRUE, writes audit records only to the traditional audit trails

With Mixed Mode, audit data can be found both in the traditional locations as well as in SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL.  This is because the Unified Auditing Policy ORA_SECURECONFIG is enabled by default.  ORA_SECURECONFIG audits the same default audit settings from Oracle Database Release 11g.  Integrigy recommends to either periodically purge Unified Auditing data or disable the policy.  To disable ORA_SECURECONFIG policy follow the instructions in Oracle Support Note Doc ID 1624051.1.

The following table shows the definition of the default policy ORA_SECURECONFIG.  Note the column ‘Common’ that shows that the policy is defined for all PDBs (tenant) databases.

Mixed Mode Default Unified Policy ORA_SECURECONFIG

Audit Option

Option Type

Common

Integrigy Framework

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

ALTER ANY PROCEDURE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

ALTER ANY SQL TRANSLATION PROFILE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

ALTER ANY TABLE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

ALTER DATABASE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

ALTER DATABASE LINK

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E13 – Objects

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

ALTER PROFILE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E14 - Modify configuration settings

ALTER ROLE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E8 - Modify role

ALTER SYSTEM

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E14 - Modify configuration settings

ALTER USER

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E6 - Modify user account

AUDIT SYSTEM

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

CREATE ANY JOB

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE ANY LIBRARY

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE ANY PROCEDURE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE ANY SQL TRANSLATION PROFILE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

CREATE ANY TABLE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE DATABASE LINK

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE DIRECTORY

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE EXTERNAL JOB

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

CREATE PROFILE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE ROLE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E7 - Create role

CREATE SQL TRANSLATION PROFILE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

CREATE USER

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E5 – Create user account

DROP ANY PROCEDURE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

DROP ANY SQL TRANSLATION PROFILE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 - Objects

DROP ANY TABLE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

DROP DATABASE LINK

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E13 – Objects

DROP DIRECTORY

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E13 – Objects

DROP PLUGGABLE DATABASE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

DROP PROFILE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E14 - Modify configuration settings

DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E13 – Objects

DROP ROLE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E8 - Modify role

DROP USER

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E6 - Modify user account

EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E14 - Modify configuration settings

EXEMPT REDACTION POLICY

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E14 - Modify configuration settings

GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E9 - Grant/revoke user privileges

GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E9 - Grant/revoke user privileges

GRANT ANY ROLE

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E9 - Grant/revoke user privileges

LOGMINING

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E12 - Modify audit and logging

LOGOFF

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E2 - Logoff

LOGON

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E1 - Login

PURGE DBA_RECYCLEBIN

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

SET ROLE

STANDARD ACTION

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

TRANSLATE ANY SQL

SYSTEM PRIVILEGE

YES

E11 - Privileged commands

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

NetApp Plug-in for Oracle RMAN

Bas Klaassen - Thu, 2014-11-20 08:03
Nice feature for Oracle dba's to handle the backups using NetApp technology. Check this demo.. http://community.netapp.com/t5/FAS-Data-ONTAP-and-Related-Plug-ins-Articles-and-Resources/Video-NetApp-Plug-in-2-0-for-Oracle-RMAN-MML-Demo/ta-p/87711Bas Klaassenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/04080547141637579116noreply@blogger.com0
Categories: APPS Blogs

Table TXK_TCC_RESULTS needs to be installed by running the EBS Technology Codelevel Checker (available as patch 17537119).

Vikram Das - Wed, 2014-11-19 12:06
I got this error while trying to apply a patch in R12.2:

 [EVENT]     [START 2014/11/19 09:18:39] Performing database sanity checks
   [ERROR]     Table TXK_TCC_RESULTS needs to be installed by running the EBS Technology Codelevel Checker (available as patch 17537119).

This table TXK_TCC-RESULTS is created in APPLSYS schema, by the latest version of the checkDBpatch.sh script delivered by 17537119.
So go ahead, download patch 17537119.  
Login as oracle user on your database node.Source environmentcd $ORACLE_HOME/appsutilunzip p17537119*$ ./checkDBpatch.sh 
+===============================================================+ | Copyright (c) 2005, 2014 Oracle and/or its affiliates. | | All rights reserved. | | EBS Technology Codelevel Checker | +===============================================================+ 
Executing Technology Codelevel Checker version: 120.18 
Enter ORACLE_HOME value : /exampler122/oracle/11.2.0 
Enter ORACLE_SID value : exampler122
Bugfix XML file version: 120.0.12020000.16 
Proceeding with the checks... 
Getting the database release ... Setting database release to 11.2.0.3 
DB connectivity successful. 
The given ORACLE_HOME is RAC enabled. NOTE: For a multi-node RAC environment - run this tool on all non-shared ORACLE_HOMEs. - run this tool on one of the shared ORACLE_HOMEs. 

Created the table to store Technology Codelevel Checker results. 
STARTED Pre-req Patch Testing : Wed Nov 19 10:53:00 EST 2014 
Log file for this session : ./checkDBpatch_7044.log 
Got the list of bug fixes to be applied and the ones to be rolled back. Checking against the given ORACLE_HOME 

Opatch is at the required version. 
Found patch records in the inventory. 
All the required one-offs are present in Oracle Database Home 
Stored Technology Codelevel Checker results in the database successfully. 
FINISHED Pre-req Patch Testing : Wed Nov 19 10:53:03 EST 2014 
========================================================= 
1 select owner,table_name from dba_tables 2* where table_name='TXK_TCC_RESULTS' SQL> / 
OWNER TABLE_NAME ------------------------------ ------------------------------ APPLSYS TXK_TCC_RESULTS 
SQL> 
Once you have done this, restart your patch with adop with additional parameter restart=yes
Categories: APPS Blogs

Oracle 12c Unified Auditing - Pure Mode

Continuing our blog series on Oracle 12 Unified Auditing is a discussion of Pure  Mode. Mixed mode is intended by Oracle to introduce Unified Auditing and provide a transition from the traditional Oracle database auditing.  Migrating to PURE Unified Auditing requires the database be stopped, the Oracle binary linked to uniaud_on, and then restarted.  This operation can be reversed if auditing needs to be changed back to Mixed Mode. 

When changing from Mixed to pure Unified Audit, two key changes occur.  The first is the audit trails are no longer written to their traditional pre-12c audit locations.  Auditing is consolidated into the Unified Audit views and stored using Oracle SecureFiles.  Oracle Secured Files use a proprietary format which means that Unified Audit logs cannot be viewed using editors such vi and may preclude or affect the use of third party logging solutions such as Splunk or HP ArcSight.  As such, Syslog auditing is not possible with Pure Unified Audit.

Unified Audit Mixed vs. Pure Mode Audit Locations

System Tables

Mixed Mode

Pure Unified Audit Impact

SYS.AUD$

Same as 11g

Exists, but will only have pre-unified audit records

SYS.FGA_LOG$

Same as 11g

Exists, but will only have pre-unified audit records

The second change is that the traditional audit configurations are no longer used.  For example, traditional auditing is largely driven by the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter.  With pure Unified Audit, the initialization parameter AUDIT_TRAIL is ignored.

Unified Audit Mixed vs. Pure Mode Audit Configurations

System Parameters

Mixed Mode

Pure Unified Audit Impact

AUDIT_TRAIL

Same as 11g

Exists, but will not have any effect

AUDIT_FILE_DEST

Same as 11g

Exists, but will not have any effect

AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS

Same as 11g

Exists, but will not have any effect

AUDIT_SYSLOG_LEVEL

Same as 11g

Exists, but will not have any effect

UNIFIED_AUDIT_SGA_QUEUE_SIZE

Same as 11g

Yes

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

What Mode of Oracle 12c Unified Auditing Are You Using and Default Auditing Policies?

Continuing our blog series on Oracle 12 Unified Auditing, how do you know what mode of Unified Auditing that you are using? Use the following SQL –

SELECT VALUE FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

The result will be TRUE or FALSE.  If TRUE, the database is using PURE Unified Auditing.  If FALSE, the database is using Mixed Mode, which is the Oracle 12c default.  Remember that V$OPTION shows what database options are installed, and V$PARAMETER shows the startup parameters for the options which have been installed.  Unified Auditing is enabled by being installed and not by being configured in V$PARAMETER.

Unified Auditing is configured through policies.  If Oracle 12c tenant databases (PDBs) are being used, these polices can be applied to common objects in all PDBs or to individual PDBs.  The table below show the policies installed and/or enabled by default –

Unified Audit Polices Installed With Oracle 12c

Policy Name

Default Enabled

Description

ORA_SECURECONFIG

Yes

Secure configuration audit options

ORA_RAS_POLICY_MGMT

No

Oracle Real Application Security administrative actions on application users, roles, and policies.

ORA_RAS_SESSION_MGMT

No

Run-time Oracle Real Application Security session actions and namespace actions

ORA_ACCOUNT_MGMT

No

Commonly used user account and privilege settings for create user, role, and privilege grants

ORA_DATABASE_PARAMETER

No

Audits commonly used Oracle Database parameter settings, e.g., the initialization file (spfile) changes

To query what policies have been defined you may use –

SELECT * FROM SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES

To query what polices have been enabled you may use –

SELECT * FROM SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference

For more information on Unified Auditing can be found here:

Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

FAQ : Custom Request with host Type

OracleApps Epicenter - Fri, 2014-11-14 20:12
How do you return status code to concurrent request that calls a shell script through HOST program. Host scripts run as concurrent request have two options, competed normal and error. Return (0) - Normal Return (1) - Error How to pass an environment(such as $APPLCSF) variable to a Host Concurrent Program? Normally , host scripts [...]
Categories: APPS Blogs

What Is Oracle Release 12c Unified Auditing?

In Oracle 12c, a new database auditing foundation has been introduced.  Oracle Unified Auditing changes the fundamental auditing functionality of the database.  In previous releases of Oracle, there were separate audit trails for each individual component.  Unified Auditing consolidates all auditing into a single repository and view.  This provides a two-fold simplification: audit data can now be found in a single location, and all audit data is in a single format.  Oracle 12c Unified Auditing supports –

  • Standard database auditing
  • SYS operations auditing (AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS)
  • Fine Grained Audit (FGA)
  • Data Pump
  • Oracle RMAN
  • Oracle Label Security (OLS)
  • Database Vault (DV)
  • Real Application Security (RAS)
  • SQL*Loader Direct Load

Unified Auditing comes standard with Oracle Enterprise Edition; no additional license is required.  It is installed by default, but not fully enabled by default.  There are two modes of operation to allow for a transition from pre-12c auditing –

  • Mixed Mode – default 12c option.  All pre-12c log and audit functionality and configurations work as before.  New Unified Auditing functionality is also available.  Log data is available in both the traditional locations as well as a new view SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL.  Also, log data continues to be written in clear text when Syslog is used. 
  • Full Mode or PURE mode – enabled only by stopping the database and relinking the Oracle kernel.  Once enabled, pre-12c log and audit configurations are ignored, and audit data is saved using the Oracle SecureFiles, which is a proprietary file format.  Because of this, Syslog is not supported.  All audit data can be found in the view SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL.

Figure 1 – Auditing Pre-Oracle 12c

 

Figure 2 – Oracle 12c Unified Auditing – Mixed Mode

 

Figure 3 – Oracle 12c Unified Auditing – Pure Mode

 

Figure 4 – Oracle 12c Unified Audit

 

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference

For more information on Unified Auditing can be found here:

Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Mystery of java.sql.SQLRecoverableException: IO Error: Socket read timed out during adop/adpatch

Vikram Das - Tue, 2014-11-11 21:19
While applying the R12.2 upgrade driver, we faced the issue of WFXLoad.class failing in adworker log but showing up as running on adctrl

        Control
Worker  Code      Context            Filename                    Status
------  --------  -----------------  --------------------------  --------------
     1  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     2  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     3  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     4  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     5  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     6  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl                              Wait        
     7  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     8  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
     9  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl  WFXLoad.class               Running      
    10  Run       AutoPatch R120 pl                              Wait        

adworker log shows:
Exception in thread "main" java.sql.SQLRecoverableException: IO Error: Socket read timed out        at oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection.logon(T4CConnection.java:482)        at oracle.jdbc.driver.PhysicalConnection.(PhysicalConnection.java:678)        at oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection.(T4CConnection.java:238)        at oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CDriverExtension.getConnection(T4CDriverExtension.java:34)        at oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver.connect(OracleDriver.java:567)        at java.sql.DriverManager.getConnection(DriverManager.java:571)        at java.sql.DriverManager.getConnection(DriverManager.java:215)        at oracle.apps.ad.worker.AdJavaWorker.getAppsConnection(AdJavaWorker.java:1041)        at oracle.apps.ad.worker.AdJavaWorker.main(AdJavaWorker.java:276)Caused by: oracle.net.ns.NetException: Socket read timed out        at oracle.net.ns.Packet.receive(Packet.java:341)        at oracle.net.ns.NSProtocol.connect(NSProtocol.java:308)        at oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection.connect(T4CConnection.java:1222)        at oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection.logon(T4CConnection.java:330)        ... 8 more
This was happening again and again. The DBAs were suspecting network issue, cluster issue, server issue and all the usual suspects.  In Database alert log we saw these errors coming every few seconds:
Fatal NI connect error 12537, connecting to: (LOCAL=NO)
  VERSION INFORMATION:        TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production        Oracle Bequeath NT Protocol Adapter for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production        TCP/IP NT Protocol Adapter for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production  Time: 11-NOV-2014 19:58:19  Tracing not turned on.  Tns error struct:    ns main err code: 12537
TNS-12537: TNS:connection closed    ns secondary err code: 12560    nt main err code: 0    nt secondary err code: 0    nt OS err code: 0opiodr aborting process unknown ospid (26388) as a result of ORA-609

We tried changing the parameters in sqlnet.ora and listener.ora as instructed in the article:Troubleshooting Guide for ORA-12537 / TNS-12537 TNS:Connection Closed (Doc ID 555609.1)
Sqlnet.ora: SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=180Listener.ora: INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name=120
However, the errors continued.  To rule out any issues in network, I also restarted the network service on Linux:
service network restart
One thing which I noticed was the extra amount of time that the connect was taking 4 seconds:
21:17:38 SQL> conn apps/appsConnected.21:17:42 SQL> 
Checked from remote app tier and it was same 4 seconds.
Stopped listener and checked on DB server that uses bequeath protocol:
21:18:47 SQL> conn / as sysdbaConnected.21:18:51 SQL> conn / as sysdbaConnected.
Again it took 4 seconds.
A few days back, I had seen that connect time had increased after turning setting the DB initialization parameter pre_page_sga to true in a different instance.  On a hunch, I checked this and indeed pre_page_sga was set to true.  I set this back to false:
alter system set pre_page_sga=false scope=spfile;shutdown immediate;exitsqlplus /nologconn / as sysdbastartupSQL> set time on22:09:46 SQL> conn / as sysdbaConnected.22:09:49 SQL>
The connections were happening instantly.  So I went ahead and resumed the patch after setting:
update fnd_install_processes set control_code='W', status='W';
commit;
I restarted the patch and all the workers completed successfully.  And the patch was running significantly faster.  So I did a search on support.oracle.com to substantiate my solution with official Oracle documentation.  I found the following articles:
Slow Connection or ORA-12170 During Connect when PRE_PAGE_SGA init.ora Parameter is Set (Doc ID 289585.1) Health Check Alert: Consider setting PRE_PAGE_SGA to FALSE (Doc ID 957525.1)
The first article (289585.1) says:PRE_PAGE_SGA can increase the process startup duration, because every process that starts must access every page in the SGA. This approach can be useful with some applications, but not with all applications. Overhead can be significant if your system frequently creates and destroys processes by, for example, continually logging on and logging off. The advantage that PRE_PAGE_SGA can afford depends on page size.
The second article (957525.1) says:Having the PRE_PAGE_SGA initialization parameter set to TRUE can significantly increase the time required to establish database connections.
The golden words here are "Overhead can be significant if your system frequently creates and destroys processes by, for example, continually logging on and logging off.".  That is exactly what happens when you do adpatch or adop.
Keep this in mind, whenever you do adpatch or adop, make sure that pre_page_sga is set to false.  It is possible that you may get the error "java.sql.SQLRecoverableException: IO Error: Socket read timed out" if you don't.  Also the patch will run significantly slower if pre_page_sga is set to true.  So set it to false and avoid these issues.


Categories: APPS Blogs

Oracle Database Last Logins with Oracle 12c

Tracking when database users last logged in is a common security and compliance requirement – for example to reconcile users and identify stale users. With Oracle 12c this analysis can now be done through standard functionality. New with Oracle12c, the SYS.DBA_USERS has a new column: last_login. 

select username, account_status, common, last_login

from sys.dba_users

order by last_login asc;

 

Username

Account_Status

Common

Last_Login

C##INTEGRIGY

OPEN

YES

05-AUG-14 12.46.52.000000000 PM AMERICA/NEW_YORK

C##INTEGRIGY_TEST_2

OPEN

YES

02-SEP-14 12.29.04.000000000 PM AMERICA/NEW_YORK

XS$NULL

EXPIRED & LOCKED

YES

02-SEP-14 12.35.56.000000000 PM AMERICA/NEW_YORK

SYSTEM

OPEN

YES

04-SEP-14 05.03.53.000000000 PM AMERICA/NEW_YORK

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Logging Oracle Database Link Activity

A database link is a one-way connection between two databases.  Starting with Oracle version 11.2.0.3, database session information now reports additional information for those sessions involving database links.  As often database links are created between databases of different security profiles; it is important to log session activity that includes the details of the database link.

DBLINK_INFO returns the source of a database link.  Specifically, it returns a string of the form –

SOURCE_GLOBAL_NAME=dblink_src_global_name

DBLINK_NAME=dblink_name

SOURCE_AUDIT_SESSIONID=dblink_src_audit_sessionid

where:

  • dblink_src_global_name is the unique global name of the source database
  • dblink_name is the name of the database link on the source database
  • dblink_src_audit_sessionid is the audit session ID of the session on the source database that initiated the connection to the remote database using dblink_name

You can verify DBLINK_INFO –

  • Oracle 12c provides a DBLINK_INFO column in SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL.
  • SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','DBLINK_INFO') FROM DUAL

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Logging Actual Application User Names for Oracle E-Business Suite, SAP, PeopleSoft, and OBIEE

Knowing which person, not just which database account, has been a challenge for database logging and auditing when working with enterprise software applications such as the Oracle E-Business Suite, SAP, PeopleSoft, and OBIEE.  Knowing which application user did what and when is now much easier because of adoption of standard Oracle functionality.

Standard functionality of Oracle database is the CLIENT_IDENTIFER attribute.  The CLIENT_IDENTIFIER is a predefined attribute of the built-in application context namespace, USERENV, and can be used to capture the application user name.

CLIENT IDENTIFIER is set using the DBMS_SESSION.SET_IDENTIFIER procedure to store the application username.  The CLIENT IDENTIFIER attribute is one the same as V$SESSION.CLIENT_IDENTIFIER.  Once set, you can query V$SESSION or select sys_context('userenv','client_identifier') from dual.

The table below offers examples of how CLIENT_IDENTIFIER is now being used by the Oracle E-Business Suite, SAP, and PeopleSoft. If you are running one of these software packages, Integrigy highly recommends that you incorporate the information that the CLIENT_IDENTIFIER provides into your logging and auditing solution.

Oracle CLIENT_IDENTIFIER

Application

Application Usage

Oracle

E-Business Suite

As of Release 12, the Oracle E-Business Suite automatically sets and updates client_identifier to the FND_USER.USERNAME of the user logged on.  Prior to Release 12, follow Support Note How to add DBMS_SESSION.SET_IDENTIFIER(FND_GLOBAL.USER_NAME) to FND_GLOBAL.APPS_INITIALIZE procedure (Doc ID 1130254.1)

Oracle

PeopleSoft

Starting with PeopleTools 8.50, the PSOPRID is now additionally set in the Oracle database CLIENT_IDENTIFIER attribute. 

SAP

With SAP version 7.10 above, the SAP user name is stored in the CLIENT_IDENTIFIER.

Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition(OBIEE)

When querying an Oracle database using OBIEE the connection pool username is passed to the database.  To also pass the middle-tier username, set the user identifier on the session.  To do this in OBIEE, open the RPD, edit the connection pool settings and create a new connection script to run at connect time.  Add the following line to the connect script:

CALL DBMS_SESSION.SET_IDENTIFIER('VALUEOF(NQ_SESSION.USER)')

If you have questions, please contact us at mailto:info@integrigy.com

Reference Tags: AuditingOracle DatabaseOracle E-Business SuiteOracle PeopleSoftSAPOracle Business Intelligence (OBIEE)
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs