Security Blogs

CVE-2017-10151 Oracle Identity Manager Vulnerability

Oracle has released an out-of-cycle security advisory (CVE-2017-10151) for a vulnerability affecting Oracle Identity Manager.  This vulnerability has a CVSS 3.0 base score of 10 out of 10.  Oracle Identity Manager is the identity governance component within the Oracle Identity Management solution.  All supported versions of Identity Manager are impacted from 11.1.1.7 to 12.2.1.3.0.  Most likely 11.1.1.1 through 11.1.1.6 are also vulnerable.  Previous Identity Manager versions (10g and 9.x) that are not based on Oracle WebLogic are probably not vulnerable.

The vulnerability is that the Oracle Identity Manager system user account (OIMINTERNAL) can be accessed using the default password through the Oracle WebLogic server.  As this is a highly privileged user, the entire Identity Manager environment can be completely compromised via an unauthenticated network attack.

The work-around is to change the OIMINTERNAL user password to a random string in the WebLogic administration console under Domain -> Security Realms.  A patch will be available in the future to automatically change the password.  See My Oracle Support Note "Oracle Security Alert CVE-2017-10151 Patch Availability Document for Oracle Identity Manager (Doc ID 2322316.1)" for more information.

As Oracle released an out-of-cycle security advisory, either detailed information regarding the vulnerability has been released or will soon be released, or Oracle has been informed the vulnerability is being actively exploited.

Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Critical Patch Updates
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle Critical Patch Update October 2017 Oracle E-Business Suite Analysis and Impact

As with almost all previous Oracle E-Business Suite Critical Patch Updates (CPU), the October 2017 quarterly patch is significant and high-risk. 47 of the past 52 quarterly patches are significant and high-risk as they fix one or more SQL injection vulnerabilities or other damaging security vulnerabilities in the web application of Oracle E-Business Suite. Despite the publicity, marketing, or naming of specific vulnerabilities, this quarter is no different than previous quarters in terms of risk and prioritization within your organization.

For this quarter, there are 3 SQL injection vulnerabilities, 16 cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities, 3 information disclosures, and 4 other types of vulnerabilities fixed.  Most important is that 25 of the 26 vulnerabilities are remotely exploitable without authentication.

Externally facing Oracle E-Business Suite environments (DMZ) running iStore or iSupport should take immediate action to mitigate the two vulnerabilities impacting iStore and four vulnerabilities impacting iSupport (and Knowledge Management).  These web pages are allowed by the URL Firewall if the iStore or iSupport modules are enabled.  All six are cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities, which requires interaction with the end-user such as clicking a link but allows for the attacker to hijack the end-users session.

October 2017 Recommendations

As with almost all Critical Patch Updates, the security vulnerabilities fixes are significant and high-risk.  Corrective action should be taken immediately for all Oracle E-Business Suite environments. The most at risk implementations are those running Internet facing self-service modules (i.e., iStore, iSupplier, iSupport, etc.) and Integrigy rates this CPU as a critical risk due to the number of SQL injection vulnerabilities that can be remotely exploited without authentication.   These implementations should (1) apply the CPU as soon as possible or use a virtual patching solution such as AppDefend and (2) ensure the DMZ is properly configured according to the EBS specific instructions and the EBS URL Firewall is enabled and optimized.

Most Oracle E-Business Suite environments do not apply the CPU security patch in a timely manner and are vulnerable to full compromise of the application through exploitation of multiple vulnerabilities. If the CPU cannot be applied quickly, the only effective alternative is the use of Integrigy's AppDefend, an application firewall for the Oracle E-Business Suite.  AppDefend provides virtual patching and can effectively replace patching of EBS web security vulnerabilities.

Oracle E-Business Suite 11i

As of April 2016, the 11i CPU patches are only available for Oracle customers with Tier 1 Support. Integrigy’s analysis of the October 2017 CPU shows at least 18 of the 26 vulnerabilities are also exploitable in 11i.  11i environments without Tier 1 Support should implement a web application firewall and virtual patching for Oracle E-Business in order to remediate large number of unpatched security vulnerabilities.  As of October 2017, an unsupported Oracle E-Business Suite 11i environment will have approximately 170 unpatched vulnerabilities – a number of which are high-risk SQL injection security bugs.

11i Tier 1 Support has been extended through December 2018, thus October 2018 will be the final CPU for Oracle E-Business Suite 11i.

Oracle E-Business Suite 12.0

CPU support for Oracle E-Business Suite 12.0 ended January 2015 and there are no security fixes for this release.  Integrigy’s analysis of the CPU shows at least 22 of the 26 vulnerabilities are exploitable in 12.0. In order to protect your application environment, the Integrigy AppDefend application firewall for Oracle E-Business Suite provides virtual patching for all these exploitable web security vulnerabilities.

Oracle Critical Patch Updates
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Grant DBA to yourself - exploit or not?

Pete Finnigan - Wed, 2017-10-11 10:26
Yesterday Peter from the Master of Disaster Blog sent me an email to ask if I had seen the issue in his post before and whether it was a new exploit. I looked at the post and immediately recognised that....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 11/10/17 At 12:06 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

New Oracle Security book - Oracle Incident Response and Forensics

Pete Finnigan - Tue, 2017-10-03 19:06
I have been quiet on here for a while due to a large workload and also in the last weeks writing a new book - Oracle Incident Response and Forensics" to be published by Apress. The book is complete as....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 03/10/17 At 08:52 AM

Categories: Security Blogs

Integrigy at Oracle Open World 2017

Integrigy will be presenting again this year on database security at Oracle Open World 2017 (San Francisco, October 1-5).  If you will be attending Open World, please join us for this informative session on database security.

The Thrifty DBA Does Database Security

Sunday, Oct 01, 10:45 a.m. - 11:30 a.m. | Moscone South - Room 159

Stephen Kost, Founder and CTO, Integrigy Corporation

Properly securing an Oracle Database requires significant effort and often expensive security add-on products. The Thrifty DBA likes having secure databases, but doesn’t like to spend money on expensive security products when equivalent zero or low-cost solutions are available. In this session discover thrifty yet effective security solutions to solve auditing, encryption, virtual private database, and authentication challenges.

Integrated Cloud Platform:  Database, Identity and Security

Code:  SUN5690

Please let us know if you would like to meet while at Open World to discuss Oracle Database or Oracle E-Business Suite security.

Oracle Database, Conference
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle Security Training In York - October 30 - 31st 2017

Pete Finnigan - Wed, 2017-09-06 07:06
I will be running my two day Oracle security training course - How to Perform a Security Audit of an Oracle Database - Here in my home city of York, UK on the 30th to 31st October 2017 this year....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 06/09/17 At 09:33 AM

Categories: Security Blogs

get_tab2.sql - Free Tool to show Privileges on an Object Updated

Pete Finnigan - Wed, 2017-08-30 10:06
I have a core set of PL/SQL scripts that I use when conducting Oracle security work on customer sites. Most of these are available on this website for many years. One of these is my script get_tab2.sql which shows grants....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 30/08/17 At 12:11 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

What Are NULL pname entries in v$process?

Pete Finnigan - Tue, 2017-08-29 15:46
I got a message on Linked In today from Jijo who asked why when he queries v$process are some of the PNAME column values NULL. I have a simple script vproc.sql that I use when analysing databases for many years....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 29/08/17 At 02:35 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Pete Finnigan is now an Oracle ACE

Pete Finnigan - Fri, 2017-08-25 20:06
I just got an email from the Oracle ACE program to tell me that I had been accepted onto the ACE program and was awarded the Oracle ACE status by Oracle. I have been active on the internet around Oracle....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 25/08/17 At 07:28 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle Security at UKOUG December 2017

Pete Finnigan - Fri, 2017-08-25 20:06
I have just had an email from the UKOUG to say that three of my presentations have been accepted for the upcoming conference on December 4th to 6th at the ICC in Birmingham. I will have one talk on the....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 25/08/17 At 04:16 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

New Video of Oracle Security Vulnerability Scanning

Pete Finnigan - Thu, 2017-08-17 10:46
I have just made a new video of a sample session using PFCLScan our vulnerability / security scanner for the Oracle database. In the video I show how easy it is to get started with PFCLScan and scan an Oracle....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 17/08/17 At 01:50 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

More Oracle Security Training Manuals for Sale

Pete Finnigan - Wed, 2017-08-09 01:26
I advertised here some months ago a small number of printed manuals that I found in our company storage for some of my Oracle security classes. We had these printed over the years for various classes that I taught and....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 08/08/17 At 01:57 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

New Oracle Security On-Line Training Dates Added

Pete Finnigan - Mon, 2017-08-07 12:46
We have finally added new on-line training dates for some of our classes; the very popular two days "How to perform a security audit of an Oracle Database" is first followed by the one day class "Hardening and Securing Oracle....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 07/08/17 At 06:30 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle Security Audit and Open Ports on a Database Server

Pete Finnigan - Fri, 2017-07-07 23:26
As part of a detailed security audit of an Oracle database performed by our company we look at most areas that are related to two things; the security of the Oracle platform itself, i.e. the Oracle database and its software....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 07/07/17 At 04:31 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle Security Training

Pete Finnigan - Fri, 2017-05-26 05:06
Yesterday I made a short video to talk about my two day class " How to Perform a Security audit of an Oracle database " and added the video to YouTube. This class is going to be delivered at a....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 26/05/17 At 09:39 AM

Categories: Security Blogs

O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY and UTL_FILE_DIR in Oracle 12c release 2

Pete Finnigan - Tue, 2017-05-23 22:06
I was not in the beta program for Oracle database 12c release 2 but when I was discussing security changes in the new release with some people who were in the beta they told me that O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY and utl_file_dir parameters....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 23/05/17 At 04:17 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

SCAP OVAL SQL57_TEST Example For Oracle E-Business Suite

Last week I posted a blog introducing SCAP and OVAL. Here is a quick follow-up with a link to a sql57_test example using the Oracle E-Business Suite - it will suffice for any Oracle database.

A great book to read first on SCAP titled ‘Security Automation Essentials’ for $15 on Amazon is a must read:  https://www.amazon.com/Security-Automation-Essentials-Streamlined-Communication/dp/0071772510. I would highly recommend this book to anyone interested in SCAP and much thanks to Witte, Cook, Kerr and Shaffer for writing it.

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 
SCAP OVAL, Oracle Database, Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

STIGS, SCAP, OVAL, Oracle Databases and ERP Security

Last week’s unprecedented ransomware cyber attacks (http://preview.tinyurl.com/lhjfjgk) caught me working through some research on security automation. The cyber attacks evidently were attributed to an unpatched Windows XP vulnerability. When challenged with securing 1,000s of assets such as all the Windows desktops and Linux servers in an organization, automation quickly becomes a requirement.

Automation is increasingly coming up in our client conversations about how to secure the technology ‘stack’ supporting large ERP implementations such as the Oracle E-Business Suite, PeopleSoft, and SAP. For example, how do you from a security professional perspective, communicate an objective risk assessment comprehensive of both the secure baseline configuration (control adherence/violation) and security patch levels (patch/unpatched CVEs) for the Linux operating systems, virtualization software, web server, database and the ERP application itself? Without automation, it is not feasible to promptly produce risk-based assessments of the complete technology stack and to produce results that are readily expressed in a common risk measurement (e.g. CVE) not requiring deep subject matter expertise.

Automation, however, can only be considered after requirements have been defined. I have long used Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs) in both my research and work with clients to define security requirements. STIGs are secure configuration standards developed by the US Department of Defense for products such as the Oracle RDBMS and are freely available (http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/Pages/index.aspx). While most clients do not need their databases hardened to military specifications, STIGs are an invaluable source of security best practice thinking.

STIGs (security checklists) are only available in xml format – not PDF files. DISA does provide a utility to view and work with STIGs (http://iase.disa.mil/stigs/Pages/stig-viewing-guidance.aspx) which allows you to manually execute the checklist, record your findings and then export the results. See this YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-h_lj5sWo4A) posting for a great summary of the STIG Viewer and how to use it.

Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP)

To answer the question of how do you automate STIG and/or security checklists, again the Department of Defense has thought through the challenges and has created the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP).

SCAP is a multi-purpose framework to automate the security scanning of configurations, vulnerabilities, patch checking and compliance. SCAP content is developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) and the components are described in the table below. The key point is that SCAP security content (checklists) is free and that the SCAP content scanning tools are available both in open source and commercial options.

SCAP Component

Description eXtensible Checklist Configuration Description Format (XCCDF) XML-based language for specifying checklists and reporting the results of checklist evaluations. Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language (OVAL) XML-based language for specifying test procedures to detect machine state Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) Nomenclature and dictionary of security-related security flaws Common Configuration Enumeration (CCE) Nomenclature and dictionary of software security configuration issues Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) Methodology for measuring the relative security of software flaws Open Checklist Interactive Language (OCIL) XML-based language for specifying security checks that require human interaction or that otherwise cannot be bundled by OVAL Asset Reporting Format (ARF) Standardized data model for sharing information about assets to facilitate the reporting, correlating, and fusing of asset security information.   OpenSCAP

There are many tools, Integrigy’s AppSentry included (https://www.integrigy.com/products/appsentry), that will perform a STIG scan of an Oracle database. The question I was researching this week, is could I use a single SCAP tool to automate the scanning of both the Linux server and the database as well as possibly ERP configurations for PeopleSoft and/or the Oracle E-Business Suite – can could I possibly do this with open source software?

The first tool I considered was OpenSCAP (https://www.open-scap.org/). This open source tool is easy to install either on your laptop or Linux database server and has remote scanning capabilities. The example below shows the capabilities of the GUI tool ‘SCAP Workbench’ and the freely available content that is installed by default for scanning a Linux server.

This exercise quickly confirmed that there is a great deal of security automation available for Linux system security configurations. Here, though, is where I hit a wall: could OpenSCAP work with Oracle databases? While the SCAP standards clearly showed support for scanning SQL database configurations using OVAL’s SQL probes (e.g. sql_test, sql57_test etc…), I may be corrected, but the standard build of OpenSCAP do not appear to include the SQL probes.

 

JOVAL

To obtain the SQL probes for SCAP scanning of database configurations, after some research, I obtained an evaluation copy of Joval Professional (http://jovalcm.com/). Joval describes themselves as allowing you to Scan anything from anywhere and to allow continuous configuration assessments for developers, enterprises, content authors and security professionals.

The installation of Joval Professional was quick and I was able to scan my laptop and remotely scan the remote Oracle Linux server without issues. The screen shot below shows the results of the remote scan of the Linux server running the Oracle RDBMS.

With a bit of experimentation (and great customer service from Joval), I was able to quickly prove I could develop OVAL content for automated SCAP scanning of Oracle databases, either for standard database security checks or for Oracle E-Business and/or PeopleSoft configurations. One key concern with the proof-of-concept is that connection string hardcodes the user name and password. The hardcoding is certainly a security issue, but JOVAL (as well as OpenSCAP) offers python bindings. The screen shot below is a single OVAL scan that included two SQL checks as well as checks against content in the sqlnet.ora file using the OVAL probe: textfilecontent54_test. 

My OVAL definition is referenced below. I am providing it as an example for others. The key points you will know is for the JOVAL connection string for Oracle:

Engine:  oracle
Version values: 11.2.0, 11.1.0, 10.2.0, 10.1.0, 9.2.0, 9.0.1
Connection string (do not use JDBC syntax): user=<username>;password=<password>;SID=<instance name>

If you want to replicate the proof-of-concept:

  1. Download a trial version of Joval Professional.
  2. Run a scan of your local laptop
  3. Run a remote scan of Linux server running your Oracle RDBMS
  4. Edit sample benchmark file (here) for your database
  5. Upload the edited sample benchmark into Joval
  6. Run the sample benchmark scan
What Next?

Having proven I can use OVAL to write Oracle and ERP audit checks, I will spend a bit more time expanding the POC. I am also interested in automation options for Joval and OpenSCAP exports to a NoSQL database such as MongoDB using the Asset Reporting Format (ARF) (https://scap.nist.gov/specifications/arf/). Both Joval and OpenScap have standard functionality to export results using ARF.

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References

Sample Oracle OVAL benchmark definition: SCAP OVAL Example Check for Oracle

SCAP

NIST SCAP site: https://scap.nist.gov/

SCAP content: https://nvd.nist.gov/ncp/repository?scap

Oracle Linux Security Guide – Using OpenSCAP: https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E37670_01/E36387/html/ol-scap-sec.html

Great summary of SCAP: https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/cioprod/documents/Technical_Introduction_to_SCAP_-_Charles_Schmidt.pdf

OVAL

Writing OVAL content https://oval.mitre.org/documents/docs-07/Writing_an_OVAL_Definition.pdf

OVAL tutorial https://nvd.nist.gov/scap/docs/conference%20presentations/workshops/OVAL%20Tutorial%202%20-%20%20Definitions.pdf

 
 
 
 
 
 
SCAP OVAL, Security Strategy and Standards, FISMA/DOD, Oracle Database, Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle E-Business Suite APPS_NE Security Risks

The most recent version of the Oracle E-Business Suite, Release 12.2, introduces on-line patching to reduce downtime requirements. This new technical functionality is based on Edition-based redefinition provided by the Oracle 11gR2 database. For the E-Business Suite to make use of Editioning, Oracle has added a new schema to the ‘APPS’ family – the APPS_NE schema.

The APPS_NE schema is the owner of those objects previously owned by APPS that cannot be Editioned or in other words; the APPS_NEW is the APPS schema for the non-editioned database objects.  

There are several security implications with regard to APPS_NE:

  • The same password must be shared among APPLSYS, APPS, and APPS_NE. The default password for APPS_NE is 'APPS.'
  • APPS_NE has similar elevated system privileges to APPS (e.g. SELECT ANY TABLE), but is not identical. See the listing below for the 56 privileges granted to APPS_NE.
  • APPS_NE must be logged, audited and monitored APPS_NE as you do APPS. APPS_NE needs to be added to your audit scripts and procedures as well as monitoring solutions

The following lists summarize the system privilege differences between APPS and APPS_NE

-- APPS_NE has 3 privileges APPS does not            
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
CREATE SEQUENCE
DROP ANY TYPE

 

-- APPS has 18 privileges that APPS_NE does not
ALTER ANY PROCEDURE
ALTER DATABASE
ANALYZE ANY DICTIONARY
CHANGE NOTIFICATION
CREATE ANY DIRECTORY
CREATE ANY EDITION
CREATE ANY PROCEDURE
CREATE EXTERNAL JOB
CREATE JOB
CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK
CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM
DEQUEUE ANY QUEUE
DROP ANY EDITION
DROP ANY PROCEDURE
DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM
ENQUEUE ANY QUEUE
EXECUTE ANY TYPE
MANAGE ANY QUEUE

 

-- APPS_NE has 56 system privileges
ALTER ANY CLUSTER
ALTER ANY INDEX
ALTER ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
ALTER ANY OUTLINE
ALTER ANY ROLE
ALTER ANY SEQUENCE
ALTER ANY TABLE
ALTER ANY TRIGGER
ALTER ANY TYPE
ALTER SESSION
ALTER SYSTEM
ANALYZE ANY
COMMENT ANY TABLE
CREATE ANY CLUSTER
CREATE ANY CONTEXT
CREATE ANY INDEX
CREATE ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
CREATE ANY OUTLINE
CREATE ANY SEQUENCE
CREATE ANY SYNONYM
CREATE ANY TABLE
CREATE ANY TRIGGER
CREATE ANY TYPE
CREATE ANY VIEW
CREATE DATABASE LINK
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
CREATE PROCEDURE
CREATE ROLE
CREATE SEQUENCE
CREATE SESSION
CREATE SYNONYM
CREATE TRIGGER
CREATE TYPE
CREATE VIEW
DELETE ANY TABLE
DROP ANY CLUSTER
DROP ANY CONTEXT
DROP ANY INDEX
DROP ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
DROP ANY OUTLINE
DROP ANY ROLE
DROP ANY SEQUENCE
DROP ANY SYNONYM
DROP ANY TABLE
DROP ANY TRIGGER
DROP ANY TYPE
DROP ANY VIEW
EXECUTE ANY PROCEDURE
GLOBAL QUERY REWRITE
GRANT ANY ROLE
INSERT ANY TABLE
LOCK ANY TABLE
SELECT ANY SEQUENCE
SELECT ANY TABLE
UNLIMITED TABLESPACE
UPDATE ANY TABLE

 

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle Security 12cR2 and Oracle Security Training Dates

Pete Finnigan - Mon, 2017-05-08 16:06
I am going to be teaching my two day class "How to perform a security audit of an Oracle database" in Athens, Greece on the 30th and 31st May 2017. This is advertised on Oracle University website and you can....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 08/05/17 At 03:51 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

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