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PMON (Process MONitor) is an Oracle background process created when you start a database instance. The PMON process will free up resources if a user process fails (eg. release database locks).

PMON normally wakes up every 3 seconds to perform its housekeeping activities. PMON must always be running for an instance. If not, the instance will terminate.

To speed-up housekeeping, one may also wake-up PMON (process 2 below) manually:

SQL> oradebug setmypid
SQL> oradebug wakeup 2

In Oracle releases prior to Oracle 12c, PMON also registered database serviced with the listener. This is now handled by the new LREG progress.

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