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Not using RMAN? You may be missing out on one of Oracle's best features!

Burton King's picture

When Oracle released RMAN (Recovery Manager) in Oracle 8 they changed the way databases can be backed up and recovered in the event of disaster. Unfortunately, Oracle shops have been slow to embrace RMAN often times because the change required a leap of faith into the new backup / recovery process as well changes to scripts, procedures, etc. This article will introduce the reader to RMAN and explain why every DBA should use it.

Before we get into some of the gritty little details of how it works, where to run it, etc., let's start with a couple lines of code that should clarify why you need to jump into RMAN as soon as possible.

run {
 	allocate channel t1 type 'sbt_tape';
	restore database;
	recover database;
	release channel t1;
	}
 alter database open;

That's it. For those that aren't used to recovering a database without sweaty palms, the previous example restored the most recent files, recovered the database, and then opened it for business; you no longer need to sweat over finding every file, control files, etc. and hope to get everything back on disk. RMAN knows what files it needs, where they belong, and how to put them there. All you have to do is say, "Go." Concerned that a tablespace was added last week and you never changed the script? You needn't worry. RMAN resynchronizes when a backup is run insuring you get that tablespace too.

Clearly not all recovery scenarios are as simple as this. But this example does illustrate that recovering a database in a few lines of code allows for a fast, reliable recovery and can save hours of misery.

Considering previous backups required an extensive work to recover in the event of a failure, the simplicity of restoring a backup with RMAN is obvious. Less obvious are some of the other benefits RMAN offers. Before looking at some of the other benefits, let's consider the architecture of RMAN running in a 9i environment.

RMAN maintains a list of backups either through entries added into the control file or through a catalog running ideally on its own server. If you choose to use the control file instead of a catalog you'll find you have an easier initial setup but are missing out on simpler restores. When the server fails you've lost the control file too placing you back in the position of having to manage control file backups. In the case of using a catalog, the catalog database should always be on another server from the servers it keeps a record of. When it's time to run backups, a simple connect statement such as "connect rcvcat user/password@rcat.myserver" creates the link between the session and the catalog. The sysdba privilege is assumed so it's not necessary to supply that information. One major caveat is that the catalog must be at a greater version than the databases it is responsible for keeping track of. For example, if you're running a 9.2 catalog you can register databases down to 8.0.4.

Setting up the catalog is relatively straight forward. After the Oracle software and utilities are installed a database is created for the recovery catalog. A user is created with GRANT connect, resourse, and recovery_catalog_user and then a simple create catalog statement is issued and the catalog is then ready to be used.

Registering a client in the catalog is also straight forward. After launching the utility a connect statement is issued such as connect target sys/mypassword@ORCL.myprodserver. Then a connect to the recovery catalog is issued (connect rcvcat user/password@rcat.server). The database is registered with a “register database;” command. From here you’re ready to start backing up the server.

Before we see an example, let's look at one piece of additional software that is highly suggested.

RMAN is most effective when utilized with a media management layer (MML) piece of software sold as an add on by all of the big backup companies; Veritas, Tivoli and Legato all offer an MML which manages backup devices such as tape drives or disk drives. This software bridge allows RMAN to write to the backup devices after creating a channel to post the data. These channels can be created implicitly or explicitly. In the case of a large database backup, you'll probably create more than one channel to effectively stream the backup to multiple devices at the same time. Each vendor has instructions how to link the MML with the Oracle RMAN process. With Veritas Netbackup, you would switch to the Oracle user (in Linux, "su - Oracle" will get you there.), then navigate to a shell script provided by the vendor and run it; with database shutdown ./oracle_link executes the shell script in a matter of seconds. Open the database and you're ready to run. In a Microsoft environment the RMAN executable is ready to run out of the box. Simple install the MML, register the database, and the database can then be backed up.

In addition to the ease of use, other benefits are well worth the trouble of learning RMAN. First is the reduction in time and space needed for backups. RMAN is not merely a user interface around the previous practice of placing a tablespace off line, backing it up (while considerable redo is generated), then placing it back on line and moving to the next tablespace. RMAN only captures blocks that have data on them (unlike cold backups) and doesn't generate volumes of redo logs to keep up with changes occuring while the database or tablespaces are being backed up like a hot backup. This means smaller, faster backups.

Additionally, RMAN has the ability to perform incremental backups; something a traditional backup could not do.

Finally, whether using a control file to maintain the RMAN metadata or through the use of a recovery catalog, the "report" and "list" commands allow you to run queries and get an understanding of what is protected.

For example, take a look at the following reports.

************************************************************************
In this example, all is well assuming all of the files have been backed up at least once.
************************************************************************

RMAN> report need backup days 1 database;

Report of files whose recovery needs more than 1 days of archived logs
File Days  Name
---- ----- -----------------------------------------------------

******************************************************************
Here we see a server that's had a problem and is at risk.
******************************************************************

RMAN> report need backup days 1 database;

RMAN-03022: compiling command: report
RMAN-03024: performing implicit full resync of recovery catalog
RMAN-03023: executing command: full resync
RMAN-08002: starting full resync of recovery catalog
RMAN-08004: full resync complete
Report of files whose recovery needs more than 1 days of archived logs
File Days  Name
---- ----- -----------------------------------------------------
1    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\SYSTEM01.DBF
2    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\TEMP01.DBF
3    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\USERS01.DBF
4    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\TEMP02.DBF
5    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\TOOLS01.DBF
6    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\INDX01.DBF
7    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\TEMP03.DBF
8    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV3_02.DBF
9    8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV1_05.DBF
10   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV6_06.DBF
11   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\RBS_01.DBF
12   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\RBS_02.DBF
13   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\RBS_03.DBF
14   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV1_01.DBF
15   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV1_02.DBF
16   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV1_03.DBF
17   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV1_04.DBF
18   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV2_01.DBF
19   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV2_02.DBF
20   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV3_01.DBF

........
65   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV2_03.DBF
66   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV7_20.DBF
67   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV3_05.DBF
68   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV6_11.DBF
69   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV7_21.DBF
70   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV7_22.DBF
71   8     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV1_12.DBF
72   5     F:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ONST\DBF\RNRV7_23.DBF

************************************************************
Here's another report worth seeing when you're about to make a change
to a tablespace.
************************************************************

RMAN> list backup of tablespace mydata;


List of Backup Sets
===================

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
6586726 Incr 0  72K        SBT_TAPE    00:01:33     14-JUN-05
        BP Key: 6586729   Status: AVAILABLE   Tag: HOT_DB_BK_LEVEL0
        Piece Name: bk_18_1_560970936
  List of Datafiles in backup set 6586726
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  11   0  Incr 72952697   14-JUN-05 C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL\MYDATA.ORA

For most administrators, writing scripts to get backups running will be a breeze. RMAN provides an easy to use command line interface which is easy to learn. A number of Oracle Press books on the market explain RMAN and how to use RMAN in your environment.

Following are two examples of backup scripts. One for a windows machine and the second from a Linux server.

************************************************
Windows where a command file calls this script:
************************************************
connect target ' sys/mypassword@ORCL.myprodserver’
connect rcvcat ‘user/password@rcat.server’
run
{
# Hot database level 0 whole backup
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE'parms 'ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=myprodserver,NB_ORA_SERV=server)'; 
allocate channel t2 type 'SBT_TAPE'parms 'ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=myprodserver,NB_ORA_SERV=server)'; 

sql 'alter system archive log current';
# backup all archive logs
backup
   filesperset 20
   format 'al_%s_%p_%t'
   (archivelog all
    delete input);
backup
  incremental level 0
  skip inaccessible
  tag hot_db_bk_level0
  filesperset 5
  # recommended format
  format 'bk_%s_%p_%t'
    (database);
sql 'alter system archive log current';
# backup all archive logs
backup
   filesperset 20
   format 'al_%s_%p_%t'
   (archivelog all
    delete input);
}

********************************************************
Linux pieces of a shell script run to create the backup.  
Setting the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, etc. have been omitted for the sake of brevity.
********************************************************

CMD_STR="
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME
export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=$ORACLE_SID
export ORACLE_SID
$RMAN target sys/password rcvcat rmanuser/rmanpassword@rcat.backupserver msglog $RMAN_LOG_FILE append << EOF

RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
BACKUP
    INCREMENTAL LEVEL=0
    SKIP INACCESSIBLE
    TAG hot_db_bk_level0
    FILESPERSET 5
    # recommended format
    FORMAT 'bk_%s_%p_%t'
    DATABASE;
    sql 'alter system archive log current';
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
# backup all archive logs
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
BACKUP
   filesperset 20
   FORMAT 'al_%s_%p_%t'
   ARCHIVELOG ALL DELETE INPUT;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;

Whether jumping into backups for the first time or an experienced administrator, RMAN has significant advantages to Cold backups where the database has been shut down, and to hot backups where tablespaces are moved in and out of backup mode and the files copied.

The script examples above are initiated by the MML software and provide most of the mechanics the administrator needs to worry about; backing up and deleting archive logs, backing up the database, allocating and releasing channels when desired. The scripts can also be run through CRON or Windows Task scheduler.

Despite Oracle’s improvements over previous backup solutions, RMAN continues to be one of the best solutions provided by Oracle but not deployed by most customers.

For those who have deployed 10g, RMAN improvements posted by Oracle include better handling of failed channels during a backup when there is a media error / failure and better performance overall. Indeed, Oracle has made a commitment to RMAN and administrators should seriously consider following suit.

Thank you for you cool RMAN article! It is informative in ways my course material is not.

thanks again,

Perryn

Consider using the relevant init parameters to detect block corruption when it happens rather than RMAN to detect it whenever you happen to run backups.

Good article.
However sometiming is missing ... if you ask me what is one of the main benefits of RMAN backups : the rman-ability to DETECT and REPORT BLOCK CORRUPTION.
Regards
Guy

Thanks
for this overviw of RMAN. This is a great article.

Thanks

Dinesh

hey .., this is a great

This is a great article. I've translated it to Indonesian. You can look it at http://wildanm.fisika.ui.edu/resource/Oracle/artikel/RMANFiturTerbaikOracle.pdf

Hope it would be useful for someone out there.

Request

Please add an attribution to the pdf for the author.

good article, but RMAn has

Good article, but RMAN has been around for at least 5 years...

From release 8i, it actually became "usable". So good article - but a bit too late.

Can anyone provide more info on how to RMAN-MML for Tivoli

Can anyone provide more info on how to RMAN-MML for Tivoli .
In Mr.King's article he is talking about running the command ./oracle_link provided by Veritas Netbackup. Likewise is there any command provided by Tivoli for compiling the MML libraries with RMAN

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