Skip navigation.

Indexing an Oracle Data Warehouse

Oracle-Bashing

Aside from a nine month excursion to Sybase IQ, I've spent my entire career working with Oracle, so I don't profess too much expertise - indeed any! - about other RDBMS technologies. So in a weak attempt at self-education, I recently accepted an invitation to listen to a Teradata presentation directed at application developers.

Disappointingly, it was more of a sales pitch than a technical decomposition of the benefits of the product. I've long since learned to ignore the promised benefits in these types of pitches, but I love to hear them slag-off the competition; the fastest way to make your sand castle bigger than the other kids' is not to build yours up but to tear theirs down! There are often kernals of truth in these critiques, so I was interested to hear what they had to say about Oracle. They came up with a number of them, but two in particular piqued my interest:

  • Oracle's parallel query engine is sub-optimal because it is too easy to skew the data across the parallel servers. eg. If rows are roughly clustered in chronological order, then a full table scan for a particular date range - where contiguous chunks of the table are farmed out to each parallel server - will result in some chunks returning no rows of interest and some returning thousands or millions. It's probably easily mitigated with hash-sub-partitioning, but still an interesting concept (for discussion in another article perhaps) that is very probably true of many data warehouses.

  • Oracle is great for canned reports that use predictable access-paths that can be indexed, but it sucks at high-volume ad-hoc analytics and data-mining because you can't index for every possible access path.

    What the...??? Did you bother to read the Oracle Data Warehousing manual before you made that one up?

Expext the Unexpected

This guy's position was that Fact tables in a data warehouse contain a lot of dimensional attributes of which you may want to use any combination in a query. eg. Widgets sold by Jones in 2007, Widgets sold to ACME in 2007, Jones' sales to ACME in 2007. Practically speaking, a fact table with N dimensions could have N! (ie. N x (N-1) x ... x 2 x 1) different access paths, requiring N! indexes. Clearly this is not tenable beyond N=4.

What he'd cheerfully ignored (or at least the research team had cheerfully ignored) is that bitmap indexes solved this issue for fact-table queries over 10 years ago in v7.3, partitioning made it scalable in v8.0, and Star Transformations extended the solution to star-schema join queries in v8i.

It's hard to get too incensed at the ignorance of a non-Oracle guy (although I admit I gave it a fair shot), because in one way he has a point: although Oracle solved the problem ages ago, a lot of people didn't listen. Oracle data warehouses and data marts are still being developed today with an archaic indexing strategy that will not scale for ad-hoc analytics.

Layers in the data warehouse

Most data warehouses are built in a layered architecture. Each layer has a different purpose and contains a different representation of the data. For this reason, each layer has differenct characteristics and requires a different indexing strategy.

  • Staging Layer - A place to collect data from source systems before it is transformed. Many ETL implementations will use flat files for the staging layer, others use database tables. Staging tables are truncated before each load and every row is transformed - usually in a single full table scan.

  • Enterprise Layer - Also called the 3NF layer, Integrated Data Store, Atomic Data Store, and probably many others. Data from all source systems is transformed from the various staging tables into a single 3rd Normal Form enterprise-wide data model. Conventional wisdom is that it is a bad idea to permit user-queries and reporting against the Enterprise Layer; let's not get into that argument just here though. The characteristic usage of the Enterprise Layer is that most access is via a predictable, optimised ETL.

  • Presentation Layer - Also known as the Dimensional Data Store or Star Schema model. Data is denormalised from the 3NF Enterprise Layer into the star-schemas of the Presentation Layer, which is then used as the platform to supply data to Business Intelligence (BI) tools. There are two important classes of BI tools: those that access the database interactively and those that do not. Those that do not - typically 3rd party OLAP tools - copy large quantities of data from the warehouse in a single hit into an external propritary format that is optimised for hierarchical multi-dimensional analytics. This distinction is important: Oracle does not need to be indexed for ad-hoc queries if they are all served by an OLAP tool with an external data store.

Indexing the Staging Layer

Don't!

The typical life-cycle of data in a Staging table is that it is bulk-loaded, read once in full and transformed into the Enterprise layer, it gets truncated, then the cycle repeats. The load will only be slowed down by the presence of indexes, unique and PK constraints are not enforced until data gets to the Enterprise Layer, and the transformation will use a Full Table Scan (FTS); there is simply no use for indexes.

In fact, use Externally Organized Tables (EOTs) for the Staging layer and remove any temptation to index or apply constraints.

Indexing the Enterprise Layer

The Enterprise layer should not be available for user-queries. The purpose of indexing the Enterprise Layer is therefore to:

  • Support the transformation of data from the Staging Layer.
  • Support the transformation of data to the Presentation Layer.
  • Enforce constraints

Since the ETL is the only "user" with access to the Enterprise Layer, there are no unexpected or unknown queries that need to be handled.

Primary and Unique Keys

Primary and Unique keys should be enforced in the Enterprise Layer, so they must be indexed. For performance reasons, it is possible to add additional columns to the index or to make the index non-unique whilst still enforcing the constraint. Take care: this can have unexpected side-effects (out of scope for this article). If you want to play it safe, stick to unique indexes enforcing these constraints.

Foreign Keys

Unlike an OLTP system, it is not a hard-and-fast requirement to index every Foreign Key. Indexes are only required to support a FK constraint for deletes on the parent table. Since deletes are typically banned in a data warehouse, an index is not strictly required.

Join Keys

Depending on your ETL tool, transforming data from the Staging Layer may involve joins to the Enterprise Layer. This is a no-brainer: create a non-unique index for every join-key used by the ETL that's not already indexed. It's easy to over-think this: since you're reading the entire Staging table, it will often be more efficient for Oracle to FTS the Enterprise tables and perform a hash join - no index required! Let Oracle be the judge; that's what the Cost Based Optimizer (CBO) is for. However if the staging table is small and the Enterprise table is large, the index will be useful, so just create it, gather statistics, and forget about it.

The same argument applies to transformations from Enterprise to Enterprise, Enterprise to Presentation, or Presentation to Presentation. Index the join-keys on both sides of the join so that the CBO can choose the best join-order.

Filtering Keys

Filtering is uncommon in the Enterpise Layer; most tables are joined by the ETL in-full without filter criteria. In the unlikely event that the ETL contains a selective WHERE clause (filters out >90%+ of the rows), then index it as for a join-key.

Bitmap and Bitmap-Join Indexes

The Enterprise Layer should not contain any bitmap indexes. They are generatlly only effective on ad-hoc queries that could contain a number of disparate AND and OR conditions on poor-cardinality columns. Where the queries are known and optimised - as they are in an ETL - a b-tree index will almost always be better.

Indexing the Presentation Layer

For Presentaiton Layer tables that are only used to build external OLAP cubes, few if any small volume indexed queries will be performed. Index join-keys as for the Enterprise Layer. For databases accessed directly and interactively by the BI tool, follow the steps below.

Primary and Unique Keys

It is not necessary to enforce constraints in the Presentation Layer since they are enforced in the Enterprise Layer. Tables that are incrementally refreshed from the Enterprise layer will obviously need a Primary Key index to support updates and deletes. A primary key may also be required to support downstream processing, such as replication.

Unique key indexes need not be created.

Primary key indexes should be created for all dimensions to support star-schema joins, but they are optional for Fact tables unless they are required to support the ETL.

Foreign Keys

Foreign keys in Star-Schema Fact tables should be Bitmap Indexed where the foreign key column contains fewer than 2500 distinct values. Note that this is not the same as a foreign key referencing a Dimension table with 2500 rows, since many rows in the dimension may not be referenced by the Fact table.

For foreign keys with between 2500 and 10000 distinct values (or those likely to grow beyond 2500) you should trial a Bitmap Index if the table is large (say, >10M rows). Bitmap indexes with over 10000 distinct values are unlikely to add benefit - use a B-Tree index (ie. a "regular" index) instead; Oracle is able to convert the results of a b-tree range-scan into a bitmap in order to combine with other Bitmap indexes.

Bitmap indexing of fact table foreign keys is the key to tuning for ad-hoc queries.

  • Oracle can combine the results of many bitmap index scans. This means you can include any combination of filters on bitmap indexed columns and obtain an efficient indexed access using all of those filters.
  • In combination with STAR_TRANSFORMATION, a query may simply join bitmap indexed foreign keys to dimension tables and filter on the dimensions' attributes; Oracle will still use the bitmap indexes in combination as if the filters were applied directly to the foreign-key columns.

Join Keys

The only joins in a star-schema should be on foreign keys - see the section above. If joins are required between Facts, then the Presentation layer has been improperly designed - refer to a good dimesnional data modelling book.

Snowflake schemas are generally to be avoided, but they do have their uses. A snowflake schema will require primary/foreign key joins between dimension tables. The primary key of the parent table should already be indexed according to the rules above. The foreign-key of the child table should be b-tree indexed to support joins.

Filtering Keys

Filters will be applied mostly to Dimension table columns and occasionally to Fact table columns. A dimension table will sometimes be joined in a query to display one or more dimensional attributes, but sometimes it will be used solely as a filter on a single column.

SELECT t.txn_dt, sum(t.txn_amt)
FROM   sales_txn t
JOIN   department d USING (dept_key)
WHERE  d.region = 'WEST'

To support ad-hoc star-schema queries, it makes sense to index those dimension columns likely to be used as filter keys (eg. department.region in the above example). However, to support the type of query shown above, the primary key (department.dept_key) should be appended to the index. In queries such as these, the only columns required from the dimension table are the filter key (for filtering) and the primary key (for joining); if both are available in the index then Oracle does not need to lookup the table row at all.

This may seem like overkill; a conformed dimension may contain dozens of columns, any or all of which may be used as filtering keys. Well, that's life in a data warehouse. If you want to independently (and efficiently) filter on dozens of different columns then you need dozens of indexes. The additional cost to the ETL is outweighed by the performance benefit to the BI layer.

This approach may be relaxed for small-medium dimensions (say, <5000 rows). Full scanning a table this size will be so fast and take so few resources that indexes are not really required.

Filter keys in a fact table should be indexed in the same way as foreign keys.

Indexing Partitioned Tables

When creating an index on a partitioned table, you need to decide whether to partition the index as well. An index that shares the same partition key as its table is termed locally partitioned. Alternatively, an index may be non-partitioned (termed: global non-partitioned), or partitioned on another column (termed: globally partitioned).

Locally partitioned indexes are preferred because they are much easier to manage; partition maintenance activities such as TRUNCATE, DROP or EXCHANGE PARTITION can be time and resource consuming on global indexes. Unfortunately, locally partitioned indexes can also be inefficient on queries that do not include a filter on the partition key; the cost of scanning every partition for a small number of rows (say, <10) can be many times slower than a global non-partitioned index (eg. scanning 100 partitions could be up to 100 times slower than a global non-partitioned index for a small number of rows).

The following guidelines will help determine the best index-partitioning strategy for tables in either the Enterprise or Presentation layer.

  • If the primary key does not contain the partition key, use a global index.
    This is commonplace in atomic (non-aggregated) facts, where the primary key is a transaction identifier and the partition key is a date. Do not blindly add the partition key to the primary key just to avoid a global index: this corrupts the integrity of the table.

    For very large tables, consider globally partitioning the primary key index on a leading subset of the index columns for ease of maintenance.

  • Locally partition all bitmap indexes.

    Bitmap indexes are typically used individually to identify a large number of rows (and collectively to identify a smaller number of rows) so they do not suffer the locally partitioned performance issue described above.

  • Consider globally indexing alternate keys and filter keys in Enterprise tables that are used to identify a small number of rows.
  • Consider globally indexing join keys between two partitioned tables (ie. Where two partitioned tables are joined on a key not including the partition key). However if such joins are performed in large volumes (eg. >50,000 rows joined) then you should strongly consider hash-sub-partitioning both tables on the join key in favour of indexing.
  • Locally partition all other indexes.

Star Transformation

Lastly, ensure that the initialisation parameter STAR_TRANSFORMATION_ENABLED is set to TRUE for the Presentation Layer. Without it, Oracle will not be able to effective use the bitmap indexes on star-schema join queries. This is described further in Oracle's Data Warehousing manual.

Hybrid Cases

Not all warehouses are designed in this way. I have seen many cases where a true Enterprise Layer is skipped; the Staging Layer is transformed directly into a denormalised star-schema. In such cases, tables must be indexed to optimise both ad-hoc queries, complex ETL, and data integrity by using a combination of the Enterprise and Presentation approches documented above.

The approach used should closely mirror that of the Presentation layer, since ad-hoc queries are the most important function of the data warehouse. In addition, primary keys, unique keys, and join keys should all be indexed as described for the Enterprise Layer. Where a conflict exists (eg. Bitmap index for a Presentation foreign-key vs. b-tree index for an Enterprise join-key), the Presentation rule takes precedence.

Bitmap-Join Indexes

Bitmap-Join indexes provide the ability to index a fact table on a column from a related dimension. This provides a similar but more efficient result to a regular bitmap index on the foreign key when used in combination with STAR_TRANSFORMATION. Consider though the case where a dimension has 20 attributes that you want to index; using bitmap-join indexes, you will have 20 indexes on the very large fact table (a significant overhead on data loads) rather than a single bitmap index on the foreign key.

Like b-tree indexes they can be more efficient than bitmap indexes for any given query, but there does not seem to be an efficient technique to make them adapt to the myriads of different access paths required for ad-hoc queries. Although not specifically stated in the Oracle manuals, Bitmap-Join indexes seem to be designed primarily for Oracle OLAP software.

Case Study 1 - Dimension Transformation

The examples in the case study below utilise table structures adapted from Oracle's Sales History sample schema.

Table Definitions


Staging Enterprise Presentation
SD_ABC_CUSTOMERS ED_CUSTOMERS PD_CUSTOMERS

CUST_NUMBER
CUST_FIRST_NAME
CUST_LAST_NAME
CUST_GENDER
CUST_DATE_OF_BIRTH
CUST_MARITAL_STATUS
CUST_STREET_ADDRESS
CUST_POSTAL_CODE
CUST_CITY
CUST_STATE_PROVINCE
CUST_COUNTRY
CUST_MAIN_PHONE_NUMBER

CUST_ID
CUST_NUMBER
CUST_FIRST_NAME
CUST_LAST_NAME
CUST_GENDER
CUST_YEAR_OF_BIRTH
CUST_MARITAL_STATUS
CUST_STREET_ADDRESS
CUST_POSTAL_CODE
CUST_CITY_ID
CUST_MAIN_PHONE_NUMBER
CUST_INCOME_LEVEL
CUST_CREDIT_LIMIT
CUST_EMAIL
CUST_SRC_ID
CUST_EFF_FROM
CUST_EFF_TO
CUST_VALID

CUST_ID
CUST_NUMBER
CUST_FIRST_NAME
CUST_LAST_NAME
CUST_GENDER
CUST_YEAR_OF_BIRTH
CUST_MARITAL_STATUS
CUST_STREET_ADDRESS
CUST_POSTAL_CODE
CUST_CITY
CUST_CITY_ID
CUST_STATE_PROVINCE
CUST_STATE_PROVINCE_ID
CUST_COUNTRY_ID
CUST_MAIN_PHONE_NUMBER
CUST_INCOME_LEVEL
CUST_CREDIT_LIMIT
CUST_EMAIL
CUST_SRC_ID
CUST_EFF_FROM
CUST_EFF_TO
CUST_VALID

Looking at the structure of these tables, we can see that the Enterprise ED_CUSTOMERS is a Type 2 Slowly Changing Dimension (SCD). ie. Changes are tracked by inserting a new row and changing the CUST_EFF_TO of the previous "current" row. ED_CUSTOMERS is supplied by many source systems, one of which is ABC (the Staging table in this example), which supplies only a subset of columns in the Enterprise table. Different source systems would supply data in a different format and use different staging tables.

The Enterprise layer has been normalised: the city/state/country supplied in the staging table has been transformed into a single CITY_ID in the Enterprise table. The Presentation layer shows this structure denormalised in the star-schema dimension PD_CUSTOMERS with the city and state attributes added back in.

Lookup Tables


ED_CITIES ED_STATE_PROVINCES ED_COUNTRIES

CITY_ID
CITY
STATE_PROVINCE_ID

STATE_PROVINCE_ID
STATE_PROVINCE
COUNTRY_ID

COUNTRY_ID
COUNTRY_ISO_CODE
COUNTRY_NAME
COUNTRY_SUBREGION_ID
COUNTRY_NAME_HIST

These tables are used by the Staging to Enterprise ETL in order to transform the textual City/State/Country into a CITY_ID surrogate key. They are also used in the Enterprise to Presentation ETL to denormalise City and State attributes back into the Customer record.

Sample ETL Code

Staging to Enterprise Enterprise to Presentation

SELECT    new.*
,         old.*
,         cit.city_id
FROM      sd_abc_customers new
LEFT JOIN ed_countries cntr 
     ON ( cntr.country_iso_code = new.cust_country )
LEFT JOIN ed_state_provinces stp
     ON ( stp.state_province = new.cust_state_province
     AND  stp.country_id     = cntr.country_id )
LEFT JOIN ed_cities cit
     ON ( cit.city = new.cust_city
     AND  cit.state_province_id = stp.state_province_id )
LEFT JOIN ed_customers old
     ON ( old.cust_number = new.cust_number
     AND  old.cust_src_id = 'ABC'
     AND  old.cust_valid  = 'Y' )


SELECT old.*
,      new.*
,      cit.city
,      stp.state_province
,      stp.country_id
FROM   ed_customers old
JOIN   ed_cities cit
  ON ( cit.city_id = old.city_id )
JOIN   ed_state_provinces stp
  ON ( stp.state_province_id = cit.state_province_id )
JOIN   pd_customers new
  ON ( new.cust_id = old.cust_id )

The above is simply a raw data-retrieval. Additional ETL code would be required to compare new values to old, determine whether there are any changes, and perform appropriate inserts and updates on the target table.

Required Indexes

Table Index Columns Reason / Notes
SD_CUSTOMERS None! Staging tables are never indexed
ED_CUSTOMERS CUST_ID Enforce constraint - Primary Key
ED_CUSTOMERS CUST_SRC_ID
CUST_NUMBER
CUST_EFF_FROM
Enforce constraint - Unique Key
ED_CUSTOMERS CUST_SRC_ID
CUST_NUMBER
CUST_VALID
Join Key - Enterprise transformation
ED_COUNTRIES
ED_STATE_PROVINCES
ED_CITIES
Assume PK and Unique indexes as for ED_CUSTOMERS.
ED_CUSTOMERS CUST_CITY_ID Join Key - Presentation transformation
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_ID Join Key - Presentation transformation (nonunique: not required for primary key enforcement)
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_COUNTRY_ID Foreign Key - snowflaked dimension
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_NUMBER
CUST_ID
Filter Key - Business Intelligence
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_LAST_NAME
CUST_ID
Filter Key - Business Intelligence
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_POSTAL_CODE
CUST_ID
Filter Key - Business Intelligence
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_CITY
CUST_ID
Filter Key - Business Intelligence
PD_CUSTOMERS CUST_MAIN_PHONE_NUMBER
CUST_ID
Filter Key - Business Intelligence

Case Study 2 - Fact Transformation

The examples in the case study below utilise table structures adapted from Oracle's Sales History sample schema.

Table Definitions

Staging Enterprise Presentation
SF_ABC_SALES_TRANSACTIONS EF_SALES_TRANSACTIONS PF_SALES_DAY

TRANSACTION_NUMBER
PROD_CODE
CUST_NUMBER
TRANSACTION_DATE
CHANNEL_CODE
PROMO_NUMBER
QUANTITY_SOLD
AMOUNT_SOLD

TRANSACTION_SRC_ID
TRANSACTION_NUMBER
PROD_ID
CUST_ID
TIME_ID
CHANNEL_ID
PROMO_ID
QUANTITY_SOLD
AMOUNT_SOLD

PROD_ID
CUST_ID
TIME_ID
CHANNEL_ID
PROMO_ID
QUANTITY_SOLD
AMOUNT_SOLD

Lookup Tables

ED_PRODUCTS ED_CUSTOMERS ED_TIMES ED_CHANNELS ED_PROMOTIONS

PROD_ID
PROD_CODE
PROD_NAME
PROD_DESC
PROD_SUBCATEGORY_ID
PROD_WEIGHT_CLASS
PROD_UNIT_OF_MEASURE
PROD_PACK_SIZE
SUPPLIER_ID
PROD_STATUS
PROD_LIST_PRICE
PROD_MIN_PRICE
PROD_SRC_ID
PROD_EFF_FROM
PROD_EFF_TO
PROD_VALID

CUST_ID
CUST_NUMBER
CUST_FIRST_NAME
CUST_LAST_NAME
CUST_GENDER
CUST_YEAR_OF_BIRTH
CUST_MARITAL_STATUS
CUST_STREET_ADDRESS
CUST_POSTAL_CODE
CUST_CITY_ID
CUST_MAIN_PHONE_NUMBER
CUST_INCOME_LEVEL
CUST_CREDIT_LIMIT
CUST_EMAIL
CUST_SRC_ID
CUST_EFF_FROM
CUST_EFF_TO
CUST_VALID

TIME_ID

CHANNEL_ID
CHANNEL_CODE
CHANNEL_DESC
CHANNEL_CLASS_ID

PROMO_ID
PROMO_NUMBER
PROMO_NAME
PROMO_SUBCATEGORY_ID
PROMO_COST
PROMO_BEGIN_DATE
PROMO_END_DATE

These tables are used by the Staging to Enterprise ETL in order to transform the natural keys (eg. CUSTOMER_NUMBER) into surrogate keys (eg. CUST_ID).

Sample ETL Code

Staging to Enterprise Enterprise to Presentation

SELECT    old.*
,         new.*
,         prod.prod_id
,         cust.cust_id
,         tim.time_id
,         chnl.channel_id
,         promo.promo_id
FROM      sf_abc_sales_transactions new
LEFT JOIN ed_products prod
     ON ( prod.prod_code = new.prod_code
     AND  prod.prod_src_id = 'ABC'
     AND  new.transaction_date BETWEEN 
          prod.prod_eff_from AND prod.prod_eff_to )
LEFT JOIN ed_customers cust
     ON ( cust.cust_number = new.cust_number
     AND  cust.cust_src_id = 'ABC'
     AND  new.transaction_date BETWEEN 
          cust.cust_eff_from AND cust.cust_eff_to )
LEFT JOIN ed_times tim
     ON ( tim.time_id = new.transactions_date )
LEFT JOIN ed_channels chnl
     ON ( chnl.channel_code = new.channel_code )
LEFT JOIN ed_promptions promo
     ON ( promo.promo_number = new.promo_number )
LEFT JOIN ef_sales_transactions old
     ON ( old.transaction_number = new.transaction_number
     AND  old.transaction_src_id = 'ABC' )


SELECT    new.*
,         old.*
FROM (
          SELECT   prod_id
          ,        cust_id
          ,        time_id
          ,        channel_id
          ,        promo_id
          ,        SUM(quantity_sold) AS quantity_sold
          ,        SUM(amount_sold) AS amount_sold
          FROM     ef_sales_transactions
          GROUP BY prod_id
          ,        cust_id
          ,        time_id
          ,        channel_id
          ,        promo_id
) new
LEFT JOIN pf_sales_day old
     ON ( old.prod_id    = new.prod_id
     AND  old.cust_id    = new.cust_id
     AND  old.time_id    = new.time_id
     AND  old.channel_id = new.channel_id
     AND  old.promo_id   = new.promo_id )

The above is simply a raw data-retrieval. Additional ETL code would be required to compare new values to old, determine whether there are any changes, and perform appropriate inserts and updates on the target table.

Required Indexes

Table Index Columns Reason / Notes
SF_ABC_SALES_TRANSACTIONS None! Staging tables are never indexed
EF_SALES_TRANSACTIONS TRANSACTION_SRC_ID
TRANSACTION_NUMBER
Enforce constraint - Primary Key
ED_PRODUCTS
ED_CUSTOMERS
ED_TIMES
ED_CHANNELS
ED_PROMOTIONS
Assume PK and join keys indexed as for ED_CUSTOMERS above.
EF_SALES_TRANSACTIONS PROD_ID
CUST_ID
TIME_ID
CHANNEL_ID
PROMO_ID
Join Key - Presentation Transformation
PF_SALES_DAY PROD_ID
CUST_ID
TIME_ID
CHANNEL_ID
PROMO_ID
Join Key - Presentation Transformation (also PK - not enforced)
PF_SALES_DAY PROD_ID Foreign Key - Bitmap Index
PF_SALES_DAY CUST_ID Foreign Key - B-Tree Index (>2500 distinct values)
PF_SALES_DAY TIME_ID Foreign Key - Bitmap Index
PF_SALES_DAY CHANNEL_ID Foreign Key - Bitmap Index
PF_SALES_DAY PROMO_ID Foreign Key - Bitmap Index

Conclusion

If you index based on a set of rules (like those above) then you will almost certainly get a sub-optimal result; some indexes will never be used, some will give no improvement, and some useful indexes or variants will be missed. What this method will deliver is an efficient baseline upon which you may start tuning; all processes and queries should run acceptably fast, and most changes will yield only modest improvements.