I’m taking a few weeks defocused from work, as a kind of grandpaternity leave. That said, the venue for my Dances of Infant Calming is a small-but-nice apartment in San Francisco, so a certain amount of thinking about tech industries is inevitable. I even found time last Tuesday to meet or speak with my clients at WibiData, MemSQL, Cloudera, Citus Data, and MongoDB. And thus:
1. I’ve been sloppy in my terminology around “geo-distribution”, in that I don’t always make it easy to distinguish between:
- Storing different parts of a database in different geographies, often for reasons of data privacy regulatory compliance.
- Replicating an entire database into different geographies, often for reasons of latency and/or availability/ disaster recovery,
The latter case can be subdivided further depending on whether multiple copies of the data can accept first writes (aka active-active, multi-master, or multi-active), or whether there’s a clear single master for each part of the database.
What made me think of this was a phone call with MongoDB in which I learned that the limit on number of replicas had been raised from 12 to 50, to support the full-replication/latency-reduction use case.
2. Three years ago I posted about agile (predictive) analytics. One of the points was:
… if you change your offers, prices, ad placement, ad text, ad appearance, call center scripts, or anything else, you immediately gain new information that isn’t well-reflected in your previous models.
Subsequently I’ve been hearing more about predictive experimentation such as bandit testing. WibiData, whose views are influenced by a couple of Very Famous Department Store clients (one of which is Macy’s), thinks experimentation is quite important. And it could be argued that experimentation is one of the simplest and most direct ways to increase the value of your data.
3. I’d further say that a number of developments, trends or possibilities I’m seeing are or could be connected. These include agile and experimental predictive analytics in general, as noted in the previous point, along with:
- Analytics carried out directly by business users.
- Automation of predictive modeling activities.
- Rapid re-training of models.
4. MongoDB, the product, has been refactored to support pluggable storage engines. In connection with that, MongoDB does/will ship with two storage engines – the traditional one and a new one from WiredTiger (but not TokuMX). Both will be equally supported by MongoDB, the company, although there surely are some tiers of support that will get bounced back to WiredTiger.
WiredTiger has the same techie principals as SleepyKat – get the wordplay?! – which was Mike Olson’s company before Cloudera. When asked, Mike spoke of those techies in remarkably glowing terms.
I wouldn’t be shocked if WiredTiger wound up playing the role for MongoDB that InnoDB played for MySQL. What I mean is that there were a lot of use cases for which the MySQL/MyISAM combination was insufficiently serious, but InnoDB turned MySQL into a respectable DBMS.
5. Hadoop’s traditional data distribution story goes something like:
- Data lives on every non-special Hadoop node that does processing.
- This gives the advantage of parallel data scans.
- Sometimes data locality works well; sometimes it doesn’t.
- Of course, if the output of every MapReduce step is persisted to disk, as is the case with Hadoop MapReduce 1, you might create some of your own data locality …
- … but Hadoop is getting away from that kind of strict, I/O-intensive processing model.
However, Cloudera has noticed that some large enterprises really, really like to have storage separate from processing. Hence its recent partnership to work with EMC Isilon. Other storage partnerships, as well as a better fit with S3/object storage kinds of environments, are sure to follow, but I have no details to offer at this time.
6. Cloudera’s count of Spark users in its customer base is currently around 60. That includes everything from playing around to full production.
7. Things still seem to be going well at MemSQL, but I didn’t press for any details that I would be free to report.
8. Speaking of MemSQL, one would think that at some point something newer would replace Oracle et al. in the general-purpose RDBMS world, much as Unix and Linux grew to overshadow the powerful, secure, reliable, cumbersome IBM mainframe operating systems. On the other hand:
- IBM blew away its mainframe competitors and had pretty close to a monopoly. But Oracle has some close and somewhat newer competitors in DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. Therefore …
- … upstarts have three behemoths to outdo, not just one.
- MySQL, PostgreSQL and to some extent Sybase are still around as well.
Also, perhaps no replacement will be needed. If we subdivide the database management world into multiple categories including:
- General-purpose RDBMS.
- Analytic RDBMS.
- Non-relational analytic data stores (perhaps Hadoop-based).
it’s not obvious that the general-purpose RDBMS category on its own requires any new entrants to ever supplant the current leaders.
All that said – if any of the current new entrants do pull off the feat, SAP HANA is probably the best (longshot) guess to do so, and MemSQL the second-best.
9. If you’re a PostgreSQL user with performance or scalability concerns, you might want to check what Citus Data is doing.
I’ve talked with many companies recently that believe they are:
- Focused on building a great data management and analytic stack for log management …
- … unlike all the other companies that might be saying the same thing …
- … and certainly unlike expensive, poorly-scalable Splunk …
- … and also unlike less-focused vendors of analytic RDBMS (which are also expensive) and/or Hadoop distributions.
At best, I think such competitive claims are overwrought. Still, it’s a genuinely important subject and opportunity, so let’s consider what a great log management and analysis system might look like.
Much of this discussion could apply to machine-generated data in general. But right now I think more players are doing product management with an explicit conception either of log management or event-series analytics, so for this post I’ll share that focus too.
A short answer might be “Splunk, but with more analytic functionality and more scalable performance, at lower cost, plus numerous coupons for free pizza.” A more constructive and bottoms-up approach might start with:
- Agents for any kind of machine that admits streams of data.
- Parsers that:
- Immediately identify explicit name-value pairs in popular formats such as JSON or XML.
- Also immediately extract a significant fraction of all implicit fields in text strings — timestamps for sure, but also a lot else. (Splunk is the current gold standard for such capabilities.)
- Allow you to easily write rules for more such extractions.
- Immediate indexing in line with everything the parsers do.
- Easy import of log files, relational tables, and other relevant data structures.
- Queries that can exploit all the indexes, at least up to the functionality level of SQL 2003 analytics (including windowing) and StreamSQL, of course with …
- … blazing scalable performance.
- Strong workload management and concurrent performance support. (Teradata is the gold standard for such capabilities in the analytic sphere.)
- Various other mature-DBMS features, e.g. in backup, manageability, and uptime.
Further, there would be numerous styles of business intelligence interface, at least including:
- Generic BI like we generally see for tabular data.
- Constantly-changing displays of streaming data.
- BI with an event-series orientation.
- Strong alerting.
- Mobile versions of everything.
The data management part of that is particularly hard, in that:
- Different architectures seem naturally well-suited for different parts of the problem.
- Maturing a new data management product is always difficult, costly and slow.
My thoughts on strengths and weaknesses of some obvious log data management contenders start:
- Oracle, IBM, and Microsoft have a lot of heft in all things database. But while each of those vendors has great resources and occasionally impressive pieces of new database engineering, none shows much evidence of framing, let alone solving, the problem in the right way(s).
- SAP owns Sybase, HANA, several old CEP companies, and Business Objects. Add them to the Oracle/IBM/Microsoft list.
- Teradata has a lot going for them. Their core analytic data management strengths are obvious. They’ve owned Aster for a while, and Aster innovated nPath quite some time ago. They recently added Hadapt, a leader in schema-on-need, as well as Revelytix, which has some good ideas in dataset management. Like most other DBMS vendors, however, Teradata doesn’t yet have much of a story for streaming data, and anyhow the most optimistic case for Teradata involves the difficult task of stitching together disparate data management technologies.
- HP Vertica has a decent position as well. Probably more proven in general concurrent, scalable performance than others in their peer group (Netezza, Greenplum, et al.), Vertica also was relatively early in innovations relevant to log analysis, including a range of time series/event series features and its own schema-on-need effort. Vertica was also founded by people who were also streaming pioneers (there were heavily overlapping groups of academics behind StreamBase, Vertica and VoltDB), but it’s not clear how that background is reflected in present Vertica product.
- Splunk, of course, has a complete stack. At the data acquisition and parsing layers, it’s second to none, and it has a considerable set of log-appropriate BI capabilities as well. And for data management it in effect is stitching together two different inverted-list data stores, plus Hadoop.
- Hadoop distribution vendors such as Cloudera, MapR or Hortonworks offer typically bundle a range of relevant capabilities. HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) is the default place to dump entire logs. In most distros, Spark offers a new approach to streaming. Impala, Drill and so on offer query. Flume gathers the log data in the first place. But a lot of the cooler capabilities are immature or unproven, and in some cases that’s putting it mildly.
In the interest of length, I’ll omit discussion of smaller vendors, except to say that Platfora’s integrated-stack event series analytics story deserves attention, and I’m disappointed that I never hear about Sumo Logic. And I don’t know a lot about companies positioned as SIEM (Security Information and Event Management), especially now that SenSage has left the scene.