Complete Media Recovery

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[edit] Media recovery commands

There are three basic media recovery commands, which differ only in the way the set of files being recovered is determined. They all use the same criteria for determining if files can be recovered. Media recovery signals an error if it cannot get the lock for a file it is attempting to recover. This prevents two recovery sessions from recovering the same file. It also prevents media recovery of a file that is in use. You should be familiar with all media recovery commands before performing media recovery.

[edit] RECOVER DATABASE

RECOVER DATABASE performs media recovery on all online datafiles that require redo to be applied. If all instances were cleanly shutdown, and no backups were restored, RECOVER DATABASE indicates a no recovery required error. It also fails if any instances have the database open (since they have the datafile locks). To perform media recovery on an entire database (all tablespaces), the database must be mounted EXCLUSIVE and closed.

[edit] RECOVER TABLESPACE

RECOVER TABLESPACE performs media recovery on all datafiles in the tablespaces listed. To translate the tablespace names into datafile names, the database must be mounted and open. The tablespaces must be offline to perform the recovery. An error is indicated if none of the files require recovery.

[edit] RECOVER DATAFILE

RECOVER DATAFILE lists the datafiles to be recovered. The database can be open or closed, provided the media recovery locks can be acquired. If the database is open in any instance, then datafile recovery can only recover off-line files.


[edit] Media recovery types

Complete Media Recovery can be classified into three categories:

[edit] Performing Closed Database Recovery

  • If the database is open, shut it down using the Server Manager Shutdown Abort mode of the Shutdown Database dialog box, or the SHUTDOWN command with the ABORT option.
  • If you're recovering from a media error, correct it if possible.
  • If files are permanently damaged, restore the most recent backup files (taken as part of a full or partial backup) of only the datafiles damaged by the media failure. Do not restore any undamaged datafiles or any online redo log files. If the hardware problem has been repaired, and damaged datafiles can be restored to their original locations, do so, and skip Step 6 of this procedure. If the hardware problem persists, restore the datafiles to an alternative storage device of the database server and continue with this procedure.
  • Start Server Manager and connect to Oracle with administrator privileges.
  • Start a new instance and mount, but do not open, the database using either the Server Manager Startup Database dialog box (with the Startup Mount radio button selected), or the STARTUP command with the MOUNT option.
  • If one or more damaged datafiles were restored to alternative locations in Step 3, the new location of these files must be indicated to the control file of the associated database.
  • All datafiles you want to recover must be online during complete media recovery. To get the datafile names, check the list of datafiles that normally accompanies the current control file, or query the V$DATAFILE view. Then, issue the ALTER DATABASE command with the DATAFILE ONLINE option to ensure that all datafiles of the database are online.
  • To start closed database recovery of all damaged datafiles in one step, use either the Server Manager Apply Recovery Archive dialog box, or an equivalent RECOVER DATABASE statement.
  • To start closed database recovery of an individual damaged datafile, use the RECOVER DATAFILE statement in Server Manager.
  • Now Oracle begins the roll forward phase of media recovery by applying the necessary redo log files (archived and online) to reconstruct the restored datafiles. Unless the application of files is automated, Oracle prompts you for each required redo log file.
  • Oracle continues until all required archived redo log files have been applied to the restored datafiles. The online redo log files are then automatically applied to the restored datafiles and notifies you when media recovery is complete. If no archived redo log files are required for complete media recovery, Oracle does not prompt for any. Instead, all necessary online redo log files are applied, and media recovery is complete.
  • After performing closed database recovery, the database is recovered up to the moment that media failure occurred. You can then open the database using the SQL command ALTER DATABASE with the OPEN option.

[edit] Performing Open-Database, Offline-Tablespace Recovery

At this point, an open database has experienced a media failure, and the database remains open while the undamaged datafiles remain online and available for use. The damaged datafiles are automatically taken off-line by Oracle.

  • The starting point for this recovery operation can vary, depending on whether you left the database open after the media failure occurred.
    • If the database was shut down, start a new instance, and mount and open the database. Perform this operation using the Server Manager Startup Database dialog box (with the Startup Open radio button selected), or with the STARTUP command with the OPEN option. After the database is open, take all tablespaces that contain damaged datafiles offline.
    • If the database is still open and only damaged datafiles of the database are offline, take all tablespaces containing damaged datafiles offline. Oracle identifies damaged datafiles via error messages. Tablespaces can be taken offline using either the Take Offline menu item of Server Manager, or the SQL command ALTER TABLESPACE with the OFFLINE option. If possible, take the damaged tablespaces offline with temporary priority (to minimize the amount of recovery).
  • Correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure. If the hardware problem cannot be repaired quickly, you can proceed with database recovery by restoring damaged files to an alternative storage device.
  • If files are permanently damaged, restore the most recent backup files (taken as part of a full or partial backup) of only the datafiles damaged by the media failure. Do not restore undamaged datafiles, online redo log files, or control files. If the hardware problem has been repaired and the datafiles can be restored to their original locations, do so. If the hardware problem persists, restore the datafiles to an alternative storage device of the database server.
  • If one or more damaged datafiles were restored to alternative locations (Step 3), indicate the new locations of these files to the control file of the associated database.
  • After connecting with administrator privileges, use the RECOVER TABLESPACE statement in Server Manager to start offline tablespace recovery of all damaged datafiles in one or more offline tablespaces using one step.
  • Oracle begins the roll forward phase of media recovery by applying the necessary redo log files (archived and online) to reconstruct the restored datafiles. Unless the applying of files is automated, Oracle prompts for each required redo log file.
  • Oracle continues until all required archived redo log files have been applied to the restored datafiles. The online redo log files are then automatically applied to the restored datafiles to complete media recovery. If no archived redo log files are required for complete media recovery, Oracle does not prompt for any. Instead, all necessary online redo log files are applied, and media recovery is complete.
  • The damaged tablespaces of the open database are now recovered up to the moment that media failure occurred. You can bring the offline tablespaces online using the Place Online menu item of Server Manager, or the SQL command ALTER TABLESPACE with the ONLINE option.

[edit] Performing Open-Database, Offline-Tablespace Individual Recovery

Identical to the preceding operation, here an open database has experienced a media failure, and remains open while the undamaged datafiles remain online and available for use. The damaged datafiles are automatically taken offline by Oracle.

  • The starting point for this recovery operation can vary, depending on whether you left the database open after the media failure occurred.
    • If the database was shut down, start a new instance, and mount and open the database. Perform this operation using the Server Manager Startup Database dialog box (with the Startup Open radio button selected), or with the STARTUP command with the OPEN option. After the database is open, take all tablespaces that contain damaged datafiles offline.
    • If the database is still open and only damaged datafiles of the database are offline, take all tablespaces containing damaged datafiles offline. Oracle identifies damaged datafiles via error messages. Tablespaces can be taken offline using either the Take Offline menu item of Server Manager, or the SQL command ALTER TABLESPACE with the OFFLINE option. If possible, take the damaged tablespaces offline with temporary priority (to minimize the amount of recovery).
  • Correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure. If the hardware problem cannot be repaired quickly, you can proceed with database recovery by restoring damaged files to an alternative storage device.
  • If files are permanently damaged, restore the most recent backup files (taken as part of a full or partial backup) of only the datafiles damaged by the media failure. Do not restore undamaged datafiles, online redo log files, or control files. If the hardware problem has been repaired and the datafiles can be restored to their original locations, do so. If the hardware problem persists, restore the datafiles to an alternative storage device of the database server.
  • If one or more damaged datafiles were restored to alternative locations (Step 3), indicate the new locations of these files to the control file of the associated database.
  • After connecting with administrator privileges, use the RECOVER DATAFILE statement in Server Manager to start offline tablespace recovery of all damaged datafiles in one or more offline tablespaces using one step.
  • Oracle begins the roll forward phase of media recovery by applying the necessary redo log files (archived and online) to reconstruct the restored datafiles. Unless the applying of files is automated, Oracle prompts for each required redo log file.
  • Oracle continues until all required archived redo log files have been applied to the restored datafiles. The online redo log files are then automatically applied to the restored datafiles to complete media recovery. If no archived redo log files are required for complete media recovery, Oracle does not prompt for any. Instead, all necessary online redo log files are applied, and media recovery is complete.
  • The damaged tablespaces of the open database are now recovered up to the moment that media failure occurred. You can bring the offline tablespaces online using the Place Online menu item of Server Manager, or the SQL command ALTER TABLESPACE with the ONLINE option.