If you write Java Server Pages, this article tries to bring together the pieces you need to know to write 'presentation logic'. This article is about custom tags, how to develop them and how to make maximum use of them. This article is also about tag libraries that come with Struts. What is covered is: what is a tag; what is a 'custom' tag; how you can build one; how they make life easier; and how Struts comes with tag libraries for developers to indulge.
While all SQL tuning professionals advocate tuning each individual SQL statement to reduce logical I/O, there are many cases where you do not have the luxury of tuning each-and-every SQL statement in an application. In these cases, the best you can hope to do is adjust the global optimizer parameters to optimizer as many SQL statements as possible.
by Nidhi Jain
Shared memory and semaphores are two important resources for an Oracle instance on Unix. An instance cannot start if it is unable to allocate what it needs.
Oracle Corporation renamed the latest version of their database management system from Oracle 10i to Oracle10G to illustrate their commitment to Grid computing and the GGG (Great Global Grid). Oracle's Chairman and CEO, Larry Ellison, will release Oracle10G at the OracleWorld conference in San Francisco on the 9th of September 2003.
Oracle Managed Files (OMF), a new feature introduced in Oracle9i, enables the Oracle Server to automatically create and delete database files using standard operating system interfaces. This
feature hugely simplifies the job of the DBA, as the DBA doesn't need to interact with the underlying operating system to create and delete files.
When an Oracle Instance is started, the characteristics of the Instance are established by parameters specified within the initialization parameter file. These initialization parameters are either stored in a PFILE or SPFILE. SPFILEs are available in Oracle 9i and above. All prior releases of Oracle are using PFILEs.
Tables can be reorganized and redefined (evolved) on-line with the DBMS_REDEFINITION package. The process is similar to on-line rebuilds of indexes, in that the original table is left on-line, while a new copy of the table is built. However, an index index-rebuild is a singular operation, while table redefinition is a multi-step process.
When Oracle allocates space to a segment (like a table or index), a group of contiguous free blocks, called an extent, is added to the segment. Metadata regarding extent allocation and unallocated extents are either stored in the data dictionary, or in the tablespace itself. Tablespaces that record extent allocation in the dictionary, are called dictionary managed tablespaces, and tablespaces that record extent allocation in the tablespace header, are called locally managed tablespaces.
What are Temporary Tablespaces:
Temporary tablespaces are used to manage space for database sort operations and for storing global temporary tables. For example, if you join two large tables, and Oracle cannot do the sort in memory (see SORT_AREA_SIZE initialisation parameter), space will be allocated in a temporary tablespace for doing the sort operation. Other SQL operations that might require disk sorting are: CREATE INDEX, ANALYZE, Select DISTINCT, ORDER BY, GROUP BY, UNION, INTERSECT, MINUS, Sort-Merge joins, etc.
The DBA should assign a temporary tablespace to each user in the database to prevent them from allocating sort space in the SYSTEM tablespace. This can be done with one of the following commands:
In Oracle 8i and below, Rollback Segments provide read consistency and the ability to rollback transactions. In Oracle 9i, Undo segments can be used to provide this functionality. The advantage of using Automatic Undo Management is that it relieves the DBA of manually creating, sizing and monitoring the rollback segments in the database.