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Updated: 16 hours 18 min ago

Amazon AWS instances and Oracle database performance

Wed, 2017-02-01 03:19

When you run Oracle Database on Amazon AWS you Bring Your Own Licenses depending on the number of virtual cores (which are the number of cores allocated to your vCPUs). Behind the instance types, you have different processors and hyper-threading. Then, when choosing which instance type to run, you want to know which processor offers the best performance for your Oracle Workload. Here is an example comparing the logical reads on T2, M4, R4 and C4 instances.

My comparison is done running cached SLOB (https://kevinclosson.net/slob/) to measure the maximum number of logical reads per seconds when running the same workload on the different instance types.
I’ve compared what you can have with 2 Oracle Database processor licences, which covers 2 cores (no core factor on AWS) which means 2 vCPU for T2 which is not hyper-threaded, and 4 vCPU for the others.

T2.large: 2vCPU, 8GB RAM, monthly cost about 100$

I was on Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2676 v3 @ 2.40GHz

With one session:

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 1.0 13.1 0.00 5.37
DB CPU(s): 1.0 13.0 0.00 5.34
Logical read (blocks): 747,004.5 9,760,555.7

With 2 sessions:

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 2.0 27.3 0.00 11.12
DB CPU(s): 2.0 27.1 0.00 11.04
Logical read (blocks): 1,398,124.7 19,111,284.0

T2 is not hyper-threaded which is why we double the LIOPS with two sessions. So with 2 Oracle licences on T2 we get 1.4 LIO/s

M4.xlarge: 4vCPU, 16GB RAM, monthly cost about 180$

M4 is the latest General Purpose instance in EC2. It is hyper-threaded so with 2 Oracle processor licences we can use 4 vCPU.
Here I was on Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2686 v4 @ 2.30GHz, 2 cores with 2 threads each.

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 1.0 13.1 0.00 5.46
DB CPU(s): 1.0 13.1 0.00 5.46
Logical read (blocks): 874,326.7 11,420,189.2

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 2.0 27.3 0.00 9.24
DB CPU(s): 2.0 27.2 0.00 9.22
Logical read (blocks): 1,540,116.9 21,047,307.6

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 3.0 40.9 0.00 12.33
DB CPU(s): 3.0 40.8 0.00 12.30
Logical read (blocks): 1,645,128.2 22,469,983.6

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 4.0 54.6 0.00 14.46
DB CPU(s): 4.0 54.3 0.00 14.39
Logical read (blocks): 1,779,361.3 24,326,538.0

Those CPU are faster than the T2 ones. With a single session, we can do 17% more LIOPS. And running on all the 4 threads, we can reach 1.8 kLIOPS which is 27% more that T2 for same Oracle licences.

R4.xlarge: 4vCPU, 30.5GB RAM, monthly cost about 200$

R4 is the memory-intensive instance. I was on Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2686 v4 @ 2.30GHz so I expect about the same performance as M4.

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 1.0 13.7 0.00 6.01
DB CPU(s): 1.0 13.7 0.00 6.01
Logical read (blocks): 864,113.9 11,798,650.6

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 2.0 27.3 0.00 9.38
DB CPU(s): 2.0 27.2 0.00 9.36
Logical read (blocks): 1,546,138.8 21,115,125.5

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 3.0 40.9 0.00 14.07
DB CPU(s): 3.0 40.9 0.00 14.05
Logical read (blocks): 1,686,595.4 23,033,987.3

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 4.0 54.6 0.00 15.00
DB CPU(s): 4.0 54.3 0.00 14.93
Logical read (blocks): 1,837,289.9 25,114,082.1

This one looks a little faster. It is the same CPU but cached SLOB does not test only CPU frequency but also memory access. R4 instances have DDR4 memory.

C4.xlarge: 4vCPU, 7.5GB RAM, monthly cost about 170$

For my last test I choose the compute-optimized C4 with Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2666 v3 @ 2.90GHz

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 1.0 13.7 0.00 6.83
DB CPU(s): 1.0 13.7 0.00 6.83
Logical read (blocks): 923,185.0 12,606,636.8

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 2.0 27.3 0.00 9.38
DB CPU(s): 2.0 27.2 0.00 9.36
Logical read (blocks): 1,632,424.3 22,296,021.5

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 3.0 39.2 0.00 13.64
DB CPU(s): 3.0 39.1 0.00 13.61
Logical read (blocks): 1,744,709.5 22,793,491.7

Load Profile Per Second Per Transaction Per Exec Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ --------------- --------------- --------- ---------
DB Time(s): 4.0 54.6 0.00 15.79
DB CPU(s): 4.0 54.3 0.00 15.71
Logical read (blocks): 1,857,692.6 25,396,599.8

According to https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/ C4 instances have the lowest price/compute performance in EC2. The frequency is 20% faster than R4, but we have similar IOPS. The CPU frequency is not the only parameter for database workload.

So what?

You should not compare only the EC2 instance cost (I’ve indicated the approximate cost for RHEL in Europe, but you can check pricing at https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/reserved-instances/pricing/). You should estimate the Oracle licences you need to run your workload. Creating an EC2 instance takes only few minutes. Installing Oracle from an ORACLE_HOME clone is also very fast and creating a database with SLOB create_database_kit is easy. Fully automated, you can run the same SLOB tests on an instance and get results after 2 hours. It is highly recommended to do that before choosing the instance type for your database. The number of cores will determine the Oracle licences to buy, which is an acquisition cost + a yearly maintenance fee. The goal is to run on the processors that gives the best performance for your workload.

 

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Introducing high-availability and multi-subnet scenarios with SQL Server on Linux

Tue, 2017-01-31 15:56

On my first blog about SQL Server on Linux, I introduced the new high availability feature which concerns only SQL Server failover cluster instances so far. During this discovery time, I had the support of Mihaela Blendea (@MihaelaBlendea) at Microsoft to clarify some architecture aspects about this new kind of architecture. Firstly, I would like to thank her. It’s always a big pleasure to get the availability of the Microsoft team in this case. But after achieving the installation of my SQL Server FCI environment on Linux, I was interested in performing the same in a more complex scenario like multi-subnets failover clusters as I may notice at some customer shops. The installation process will surely change over the time and it is not intended as an official documentation of course. This is only an exercise which is part of my Linux immersion experience.

So I decided to evolve my current architecture (two clusters nodes with PaceMaker on the same subnet) by introducing a third one on a different subnet. Here a picture of the architecture I wanted to install.

blog 115 - 1 - sqlfci multisubnet architecture

So basically, referring to my previous architecture, the task to perform was as follows:

  • Make the initial heartbeat configuration redundant. Even if nowadays having redundant network paths is mostly handled by modern infrastructures and virtualization layers as well, I still believe it is always a best practice to make the heartbeat redundant at the cluster level in order to avoid unexpected behaviors like split brains (for instance with two nodes in this case). I will have the opportunity to talk about quorum stuff in a next post.
  • Introduce a third node on a different subnet to the existing architecture and then adding it to the cluster. You may follow the Microsoft documentation to perform this task. The main challenge here was to add the third node in the context of multi-subnet scenario and to ensure the communication path is working well between cluster nodes for both networks (public and private).
  • Find a way to make the existing SQL Server FCI resource multi-subnet compliant. I mean to get the same kind of behavior we may have with WSFC on Windows when the resource fails over nodes on different subnets. In this case, we have to configure an OR based resource dependency which includes second virtual address IP.
  • Check if applications are able to connect in the context of multi-subnet failover event.

You may notice that I didn’t introduce redundancy at the storage layer. Indeed, the NFS server becomes the SPOF but I didn’t want to make my architecture more complex at all for the moment. In a more realistic scenario at customer shops, this aspect would be probably covered by other storage vendor solutions.

So let’s begin by the heartbeat configuration. According to my existing infrastructure, only one ring was configured and ran on the top of my eth0 interfaces on both nodes ((respectively 192.168.5.17 for the linux01 node and 192.168.5.18 for the linux02 node).

 [mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs cluster corosync
…
nodelist {
    node {
        ring0_addr: linux01.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 1
    }

    node {
        ring0_addr: linux02.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 2
    }
}
…

 

So I added one another network interface (eth1) on each cluster node with a different subnet (192.168.20.0). Those interfaces will be dedicated on running the second Corosync link (ring 2).

  • Linux01
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ ip addr show eth1
eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:15:5d:00:2b:d4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.20.17/24 brd 192.168.20.255 scope global eth1
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::215:5dff:fe00:2bd4/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

 

  • Linux02
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo ssh linux02 ip addr show eth1
…
3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:15:5d:00:2b:d5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.20.18/24 brd 192.168.20.255 scope global eth1
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::36d8:d6f9:1b7a:cebd/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

 

At this point I binded each new IP address with a corresponding hostname. We may either store the new configuration in the /etc/hosts file or in the DNS server(s).

Then I updated the Corosync.conf on both nodes by adding the new ring configuration as follows. The point here is that configuration changes are not synchronized automatically across nodes like Windows Failover clusters. To allow redundant ring protocol, I added the rrp_mode parameter to be active on both network interfaces (eth0 and eth1) and a new ring section for each node (ring1_addr).

totem {
    version: 2
    secauth: off
    cluster_name: linux_cluster
    transport: udpu
    rrp_mode: active
}
nodelist {
    node {
        ring0_addr: linux01.dbi-services.test
        ring1_addr: linux01H2.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 1
    }
    node {
        ring0_addr: linux02.dbi-services.test
        ring1_addr: linux02H2.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 2
    }
}

After restarting the Corosync service on both nodes, I checked the new ring status on both nodes

 [mikedavem@linux01 ~]# sudo corosync-cfgtool -s
Printing ring status.
Local node ID 1
RING ID 0
        id      = 192.168.5.17
        status  = ring 0 active with no faults
RING ID 1
        id      = 192.168.20.17
        status  = Marking seqid 23 ringid 1 interface 192.168.20.17 FAULTY
[root@linux01 ~]#
 [root@linux01 ~]# ssh linux02 corosync-cfgtool -s
Printing ring status.
Local node ID 2
RING ID 0
        id      = 192.168.5.18
        status  = ring 0 active with no faults
RING ID 1
        id      = 192.168.20.18
        status  = ring 1 active with no faults

 

At this point, my pacemaker cluster was able to use all the network interfaces to execute heartbeat.

In the respect of the Microsoft documentation, I added a new node LINUX03 with the same heartbeat configuration and the general Corosync configuration was updated as follows:

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]# sudo pcs cluster node add linux03.dbi-services.test,linux03H2.dbi-services.testnodelist 
…
    node {
        ring0_addr: linux01.dbi-services.test
        ring1_addr: linux01H2.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 1
    }
    node {
        ring0_addr: linux02.dbi-services.test
        ring1_addr: linux02H2.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 2
    }
    node {
        ring0_addr: linux03.dbi-services.test
        ring1_addr: linux03H2.dbi-services.test
        nodeid: 3
    }
}

 

Obviously, communication paths were done successfully after configuring correctly the routes between nodes on different subnets. Corresponding default gateways are already configured for eth0 interfaces but we have to add static routes for eth1 interfaces as shown below:

  • LINUX01 and LINUX02 (eth0 – subnet 192.168.5.0 – default gateway 192.168.5.10 / eth1 – subnet 192.168.20.0 – static route to 192.168.30.0 subnet by using 192.168.20.10).
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         192.168.5.10    0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth0
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U     1002   0        0 eth0
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U     1003   0        0 eth1
192.168.5.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth0
192.168.20.0    0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth1
192.168.30.0    192.168.20.10   255.255.255.0   UG    0      0        0 eth1

 

  • LINUX03 (eth0 – subnet 192.168.50.0 – default gateway 192.168.50.10 / eth1 – subnet 192.168.30.0 – static route to 192.168.20.0 subnet by using 192.168.30.10).
[mikedavem@linux03 ~]$ route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         192.168.50.10   0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth0
0.0.0.0         192.168.50.10   0.0.0.0         UG    100    0        0 eth0
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U     1002   0        0 eth0
192.168.20.0    192.168.30.10   255.255.255.0   UG    100    0        0 eth1
192.168.30.0    0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     100    0        0 eth1
192.168.50.0    0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     100    0        0 eth0

 

Let’s have a look at the cluster status:

[root@linux01 ~]# pcs cluster status
Cluster Status:
 Stack: corosync
 Current DC: linux01.dbi-services.test (version 1.1.15-11.el7_3.2-e174ec8) - partition with quorum
 Last updated: Mon Jan 30 12:47:00 2017         Last change: Mon Jan 30 12:45:01 2017 by hacluster via crmd on linux01.dbi-services.test
 3 nodes and 3 resources configured

PCSD Status:
  linux01.dbi-services.test: Online
  linux03.dbi-services.test: Online
  linux02.dbi-services.test: Online

 

To enable NFS share to be mounted from the new cluster node LINUX03 on the 192.168.50.0 subnet, we have to add the new configuration in the /etc/exports file and export it afterwards.

[root@nfs ~]# exportfs -rav
exporting 192.168.5.0/24:/mnt/sql_log_nfs
exporting 192.168.5.0/24:/mnt/sql_data_nfs
exporting 192.168.50.0/24:/mnt/sql_data_nfs

[root@nfs ~]# showmount -e
Export list for nfs.dbi-services.com:
/mnt/sql_log_nfs  192.168.5.0/24
/mnt/sql_data_nfs 192.168.50.0/24,192.168.5.0/24

 

Well, after checking everything is ok from the cluster side, the next challenge was to find a way to configure the SQL Server FCI resource to be multi-subnet compliant. As stated by Microsoft, the SQL Server FCI is not as coupled with Pacemaker add-on as the Windows Failover Cluster. Based on my Windows Failover experience, I wondered if I had to go to the same way with the pacemaker cluster on Linux and I tried to find out a way to add a second VIP and then to include it as part of the OR dependency but I found nothing on this field. But Pacemaker offers concepts which include location / collocation and scores in order to behave on the resources during failover events. My intention is not to go into details trough the pacemaker documentation but by playing with the 3 concepts I was able to address our need. Again please feel free to comments if you have a better method to meet my requirement.

Let’s first add a second virtual IP address for the 192.168.50.0 subnet (virtualipdr) and then let’s add a new dependency / colocation between for SQL Server resource (sqllinuxfci)

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$sudo pcs cluster cib cfg
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$sudo pcs -f cfg resource create virtualipdr ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 ip=192.168.50.20
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$sudo pcs -f cfg constraint colocation add virtualipdr sqlinuxfci
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$sudo pcs cluster cib-push cfg
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$sudo pcs constraint location

 

Now to avoid starting virtualip or virtualipdr resources on the wrong subnet, let’s configure an “opt-out” scenario which includes symmetric cluster to allow resources to run everywhere and location constraints to avoid running a resource on a specified location / node.

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$sudo pcs property set symmetric-cluster=true
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$pcs constraint location virtualipdr avoids linux01.dbi-services.test=-1
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$pcs constraint location virtualipdr avoids linux02.dbi-services.test=-1
[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$pcs constraint location virtualip avoids linux03.dbi-services.test=-1

 

The new constraint topology is as follows

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs constraint
Location Constraints:
  Resource: sqllinuxfci
    Enabled on: linux01.dbi-services.test (score:INFINITY) (role: Started)
  Resource: virtualip
    Disabled on: linux03.dbi-services.test (score:-1)
  Resource: virtualipdr
    Disabled on: linux01.dbi-services.test (score:-1)
    Disabled on: linux02.dbi-services.test (score:-1)
Ordering Constraints:
Colocation Constraints:
  FS with sqllinuxfci (score:INFINITY)
  virtualip with sqllinuxfci (score:INFINITY)
  virtualipdr with sqllinuxfci (score:INFINITY)
Ticket Constraints:

 

Let’s have a look at the pacemaker status. At this point all SQL Server resources are running on the LINUX01 on the 192.168.5.0 subnet. We may notice the virtualipdr is in stopped state in this case.

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs status
Cluster name: linux_cluster
Stack: corosync
Current DC: linux02.dbi-services.test (version 1.1.15-11.el7_3.2-e174ec8) - partition with quorum
Last updated: Tue Jan 31 22:28:57 2017          Last change: Mon Jan 30 16:57:10 2017 by root via crm_resource on linux01.dbi-services.test

3 nodes and 4 resources configured

Online: [ linux01.dbi-services.test linux02.dbi-services.test linux03.dbi-services.test ]

Full list of resources:

 sqllinuxfci    (ocf::mssql:fci):       Started linux01.dbi-services.test
 FS     (ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):    Started linux01.dbi-services.test
 virtualip      (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started linux01.dbi-services.test
 virtualipdr    (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Stopped

Daemon Status:
  corosync: active/enabled
  pacemaker: active/enabled
  pcsd: active/enabled

 

Go ahead and let’s try to move the resources on the LINUX03 node – 192.168.50.0 subnet

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs resource move sqllinuxfci linux03.dbi-services.test

 

The new Pacemarker status becomes

[mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs status
Cluster name: linux_cluster
Stack: corosync
Current DC: linux02.dbi-services.test (version 1.1.15-11.el7_3.2-e174ec8) - partition with quorum
Last updated: Tue Jan 31 22:33:21 2017          Last change: Tue Jan 31 22:32:53 2017 by root via crm_resource on linux01.dbi-services.test

3 nodes and 4 resources configured

Online: [ linux01.dbi-services.test linux02.dbi-services.test linux03.dbi-services.test ]

Full list of resources:

 sqllinuxfci    (ocf::mssql:fci):       Stopped
 FS     (ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):    Started linux03.dbi-services.test
 virtualip      (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Stopped
 virtualipdr    (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started linux03.dbi-services.test

Daemon Status:
  corosync: active/enabled
  pacemaker: active/enabled
  pcsd: active/enabled

 

In turn, the virtualipdr brought online and virtualip brought offline as well because we are now located on the 192.168.50.0 subnet. Here we go!

Ok at this point our SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance seems to behave as expected but how to deal with client connections in this case? If I refer to previous Windows Failover Cluster experiences, I may think about two scenarios by using DNS servers.

  • We are able to use SqlClient / JAVA / ODBC support for HA with MultiSubnetFailover parameter on the connection string. In this case good news, we may simply put the both different addresses for the corresponding DNS record and the magic will operate by itself (similar to RegisterAllProvidersIP property with availability groups). The client will reach out automatically the first available address and everything should be fine.
  • We cannot modify or use the MultiSubnetFailover and in this case we may setup the TTL value manually for the corresponding DNS record (similar to the HostRecordTTL parameters with availability groups). We will experience timeout issues for the first connection attempt but the second one should work.
  • Other scenarios?? Please feel free to comment

In my lab environnement using SqlClient based connections seem to work well in the aforementioned cases. I will perform further tests in a near feature and update this blog accordingly with the results.

I’m looking forward to see other improvements / features with the next SQL Server CTPs

Happy clustering on Linux!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cet article Introducing high-availability and multi-subnet scenarios with SQL Server on Linux est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

Oracle Core factor and Oracle or non-Oracle Cloud

Mon, 2017-01-30 05:10

Oracle Database licensing can be based on two metrics: Processor or Named User Plus (NUP). NUP also necessitate to count the processors because there is a minimum number of NUP per processor. Then it is very important to know how to count processors. The time where a machine had 1 socket with 1 processor with 1 chip with 1 core running 1 thread is really old past. Today, we have physical machines with multi-core processors, running multiple threads per core. And virtualization allocates part of it to virtual machines, often called vCPU.

Oracle still uses the name ‘processor’ but declines the way of counting them by processor vendor (Core Factor), virtualization solution, and cloud provider.

References

The main document referenced here are:

The Oracle Processor Core Factor Table: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/contracts/processor-core-factor-table-070634.pdf which describes how to adjust core count to processor count. It also describes how to count Oracle Cloud CPU (aka OCPU).

The Licensing Oracle Software in the Cloud Computing Environment: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/cloud-licensing-070579.pdf which describes how to count Amazon AWS vCPU and Microsoft Azure Cores.

There is no mention of other cloud providers, but they all run virtualization so comes the Oracle Partitioning Policy to know how to count physical vs. virtual CPU: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/partitioning-070609.pdf. However, their hosting contract may mention different things.

At the end of those documents, you see a mention that they are ‘for educational purposes only’ so basically there’s no legal truth in them and my blog post being my interpretation on that has no value at all… Your contracts have the truth when it comes to legal interpretation.

So you might wonder what’s the point reading those documents if they have no value? Well, your goal, as an IT manager, is not to go to court and fight with attorneys. If you want to avoid any problems, it is better to read those rules and adhere to them, whether you find them fair or not. Of course, you can also choose to go to other vendors with other models, such as open source. But that’s not the goal of this post. Here I suppose that you like the oracle database technology, as much as I do, and that you are looking for a way to run it at affordable cost without worrying about LMS audits…

Something else about those documents: they change, so you may want to look at history. For example, about Amazon and Azure, the definitions were a bit different a few days ago and the web time machine can help us: http://web.archive.org/web/20161226082104/http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/cloud-licensing-070579.pdf.

Vendors

Of course, there may be some technical reasons behind core factor, virtualization and cloud factors. But let’s face it, besides the database, Oracle is also a hardware vendor, a virtualization software vendor, and a cloud provider. They are at the top in database market, willing to do the same on the cloud market. Making database cheaper on their products may be a way to achieve that. Customers wanting to stay with Oracle Database will be tempted to go to full Oracle stack.

The combination of core factor and virtualisation rules clearly disadvantages all competitors:

  • IBM LPAR virtualisation is accepted, but IBM POWER core factor makes the database 2x more expensive than on processors you find in Oracle hardware (Intel, SPARC)
  • Most data center run on VMWare ESX with 0.5 core factor Intel, but counting vCPU is not accepted and the whole datacenter may have to be licenced
  • We are allowed to count vCPU on Amazon and Azure virtualization, they run Intel Xeon, but core factor applies only on Oracle Cloud. You need x2 processor licenses on AWS or Azure for the same processor cores
  • Disabling cores from the BIOS is how Capacity on Demand is done on bare metal ODA, but we are not allowed to do the same on similar hardware

So basically, running Oracle Database is cheaper on Oracle Hardware, Oracle virtualization and Oracle Cloud. When you do it on other vendors, you can’t do capacity on demand, and you need more processor licenses to run on same number of CPU.

Enterprise Edition

On the Oracle Cloud, you allocate CPU resources with shape OCPU. One OCPU is the equivalent of one Intel Xeon core with 2 threads. And one processor licences covers 2 OCPUs. This looks like the core factor for Inter Xeon even if it is not directly mentioned (but this equivalence is written in the core factor document). So One processor license covers 2 cores, 4 vCPU with hyper-threading.

On Amazon EC2 and RDS one processor licence covers 1 core. This can be 1 vCPU (T2 and m3.medium have one thread per core) or 2 vCPU (hyper-threaded instances). The AWS document https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/ mentions that each vCPU is a hyperthread of an Intel Xeon core except for T2 and m3.medium.

On Microsoft Azure one processor license covers 1 core. This is 1 vCPU as there is no hyper-threading enabled.

23-Jan-2017

I mentioned looking at archive.org version of the documents. Tim Hall has mentioned what has changed on is blog

The previous document was not very clear, mentioning ‘virtual cores’. Actually, ‘virtual cores’ are the number of cores that are behind the vCPU: one for T2 instances (and m3.medium), two for hyper-threaded instances. And this is listed precisely on https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/virtualcores/ for Amazon. It is clear also for Azure as there is no hyper-threading.

But what has changed is that there were previously two mentions of applying the core factor:

  • An example on 8 virtual cores requiring 8 * 0.5 = 4 processor licenses
  • The mention that AWS implements Oracle VM and then follow the rules of hard partitioning and ‘standard processor metric’ which, IMO, includes the core factor

Those two have disappear in the new document, with an explicit mention that When counting Oracle Processor license requirements in Authorized Cloud Environments, the Oracle Processor Core Factor Table is not applicable. This makes the Oracle Cloud competitors two times more expensive than before for running Oracle Databases. The fun part is that IaaS providers that are not ‘Authorized’, or private clouds, can apply core factor and count vCPUs as long as they virtualize with Oracle VM on Intel Xeon. But hosting companies may have different rules in their contracts.

NUP

When licensing in NUP, the metric is not the number of processor. But you have to count them because you need to buy more than 25 NUP per processor. This means that if you have 25 NUP only (for a development environment with few developers for example) you can run it on 2 cores in the Oracle Public Cloud, but only one core on the other ‘Authorized’ ones.

Standard Edition

Note that the core factor has nothing to do in Standard Edition. Processor metric for Standard Edition is not a core but a socket. On current Intel processors, a socket can run 12, 18, or 24 cores. But maths are different in the Cloud from an Oracle licensing perspective.

In the Oracle Cloud, one ‘socket’ is 4 OCPU which is 4 cores (8 threads). An instance with 1 to 8 vCPU requires 1 SE2 processor license. 9 to 16 vCPU requires 2 SE processor licences and I think it is the maximum you can have on Oracle Cloud. So the idea is that one socket is equivalent to 4 cores. This is low, but it was worse before October where one ‘socket’ was 2 cores only.

Worse also for the competitors cloud, as this has not changed and it is still one ‘socket’ for 2 cores. This means that in Azure a SE2 processor licence covers 2 cores, and in Amazon it covers 4 vCPU (which are 4 threads on 2 cores).

Standard Edition 2

Now if you remember that SE2 has a limit of 16 threads for on-premises, the limit on the Cloud is 8 vCPUs on Amazon. You cannot run SE2 on a AWS instance with more than 8 vCPU. This is a big limitation. On-premises, the limit is soft only: resource manager will schedule at most 16 user sessions on CPU. But more resources can be used by background processes. On AWS, you are limited to 8 CPU treads in total, which means that you have only 4 cores for all processes – user and background included. And CPU starvation is not very good when you wait for LGWR.

This is even worse on Azure where the limit is 4 cores without hyper-threading.

This is clearly stated in the ‘Authorized Cloud’ document:
Oracle Standard Edition One and Standard Edition 2 may only be licensed on Authorized Cloud Environment instances up to eight Amazon vCPUs or four Azure CPU Cores.. Here again, the SE2 comes at the price of SE but with limitations of SE1.

Once again, rules are more friendly for Oracle Cloud where you can create a Standard Edition instance on 16 OCPU (which is 32 threads). SE2 resource manager will still limit to 16 user sessions, and they will have one core for each. And background processes will be able use the additional resource coming from hyperthreading.

ULA

There are two important points regarding ULA and ‘authorized clouds': ULA licences can be used during the ULA, but they don’t count in certification to exit ULA.

So what?

I don’t think I’ll risk a conclusion here. Having different price for same software running on similar hardware doesn’t look fair. I’m more annoyed by the difficulty to compare, espacially when rules change from time to time. But I can understand that vendors want to push their own products.

Let’s get technical. My recommandation is to use the minimum of CPU resources so that you don’t have to run your application on dozens of vCPUs. This is why we like Oracle: it is very efficient both for OLTP and BI. Most of the code used by your critical use-cases was optimized decades ago for mono-core processors. Look at an AWR report, identify the queries that are responsible for most of CPU and tune them. Stop hard parsing over and over. Stop reading always the same blocks. Stop doing row-by-row round-trips to your database. Don’t waste your CPU cycles doing all this unnecessary work and you will save money, whatever the ‘core factor’ is.

 

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Oracle 12c – How to Prevent License Violation with Active Data Guard

Sat, 2017-01-28 05:00

There are some articles floating around how to prevent a license violation with Active Data Guard. Some of them related to an underscore parameter “_query_on_physical” and some of them related to a startup trigger. Both of them have advantages and disadvantages. E.g. regarding the “_query_on_physical” I can’t find any MOS Note about it, and I don’t know the side effects.

Oracle gives us a hard time to disable features that we don’t want to be enabled by accident. It gets much better with 12.2 where you can use lockdown profiles. My colleague Franck explained it very well at the DOAG 2016 how this new feature works.

http://www.doag.org/formes/pubfiles/8586609/docs/Konferenz/2016/vortraege/Datenbank/2016-DB-Franck_Pachot-Multitenant_New_Security_Features_Clarify_DevOps_DBA_roles-Praesentation.pdf

But for now, I am on 12cR1 and I need a solution for that version. Especially with Active Data Guard it is very easy to activate it. Just type in “startup” on the Standby, and then you have it already. Nothing more is needed.

Nevertheless, I have 12cR1 here, and my favorite way to prevent a license violation with Active Data Guard is related to cluster resources, in combination with the DataGuard Broker and an Observer. If all of them are in place and when you are on the right patch level, then it works. Especially the patch level is quite important. We will see later. What is also important, is that you should work only with the Broker command or with the srvctl utility.

In my case I have a primary single instance called DBIT121_SITE1 and a standby single instance called DBIT121_SITE2. After the Data Guard has been setup, it is time to configure the Cluster Resources.

In this particular case, the most important parameters when you add the database cluster resources are “role” and “startoption”

$ srvctl add database -h | egrep '(<role>|<start_options>)' | tail -2
    -role <role>                   Role of the database (PRIMARY, PHYSICAL_STANDBY, LOGICAL_STANDBY, SNAPSHOT_STANDBY, FAR_SYNC)
    -startoption <start_options>   Startup options for the database. Examples of startup options are OPEN, MOUNT, or "READ ONLY".

With the parameter “role” you specify the role that your database has at the moment (not the future role). The role adjustments are done later by the Broker whenever you do a switchover or failover.

The role option is not only available with the “srvctl add database” command, it is also available with the “srvctl add service” command. Now it becomes really interesting. You tell Oracle to start the service only, if the role is PRIMARY.

$ srvctl add service -h | grep '<role>'
    -role <role>                   Role of the service (primary, physical_standby, logical_standby, snapshot_standby)

Ok. Let’s create the cluster resources now.

-- Primary
$ srvctl add database -db DBIT121_SITE1 -oraclehome /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/dbhome_1 \
-dbtype SINGLE -instance DBIT121 -node dbidg01 \
-spfile /u01/app/oracle/admin/DBIT121/pfile/spfileDBIT121.ora \
-pwfile /u01/app/oracle/admin/DBIT121/pfile/orapwDBIT121 \
-role PRIMARY -startoption OPEN \
-dbname DBIT121

$ srvctl add service -db DBIT121_SITE1 -service DBIT121_SERVICE -role primary \
-failovertype SELECT -notification TRUE -tafpolicy BASIC

-- Standby
$ srvctl add database -db DBIT121_SITE2 -oraclehome /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/dbhome_1 \
-dbtype SINGLE -instance DBIT121 -node dbidg02 \ 
-spfile /u01/app/oracle/admin/DBIT121/pfile/spfileDBIT121.ora \
-pwfile /u01/app/oracle/admin/DBIT121/pfile/orapwDBIT121 \
-role PHYSICAL_STANDBY -startoption MOUNT \
-dbname DBIT121

$ srvctl add service -db DBIT121_SITE2 -service DBIT121_SERVICE -role primary \
-failovertype SELECT -notification TRUE -tafpolicy BASIC

To test if everything works, simply do a “SWITCHOVER” with the Data Guard Broker and check the Cluster Resources afterwards. After a role change, you should see the following Cluster resource entries on the Primary

$ crsctl stat res ora.dbit121_site1.db -p | egrep '(USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE|ROLE)'
ROLE=PRIMARY
USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE=open

and these ones on the Standby

$ crsctl stat res ora.dbit121_site2.db -p | egrep '(USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE|ROLE)'
ROLE=PHYSICAL_STANDBY
USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE=mount

Oracle preserves the Open modes and also some other stuff like Block Change Tracking. If Active Data Guard was not enabled beforehand, it will also not be enabled afterwards (this is at least how it should be), and besides that, Oracle also disables the “Block Change Tracking” feature on the new Standby, because this would need the Active Data Guard license as well.

alert.log
...
Completed: ALTER DATABASE SWITCHOVER TO 'DBIT121_SITE2'
Target standby DBIT121_SITE2 did not have Active Data Guard enabled at the time of switchover.
To maintain Active Data Guard license compliance Block Change Tracking will be disabled.
Fri Jan 27 08:49:23 2017
..

But the final and most important test is killing the PMON on the Standby. In GI version below 12.1.0.2 with 2016 Oct PSU, you might end up with Active Data Guard enabled. Opsssssss …
Everything was setup up correctly, but still not working like expected. I just have simulated that a background process dies. This could happen in reality for example due to a bug with “_use_single_log_writer=false” which is the default with 12c, or simply by someone accidently killing the wrong process.

$ ps -ef | grep ora_pmon_DBIT121 | grep -v grep 
oracle 639 1 0 13:31 ? 00:00:00 ora_pmon_DBIT121

$ kill -9 639 

alert.log 
... 
... 
Physical Standby Database mounted. 
Lost write protection mode set to "typical" 
Completed: ALTER DATABASE MOUNT /* db agent *//* {0:33:25} */ 
ALTER DATABASE OPEN /* db agent *//* {0:33:25} */ 
Data Guard Broker initializing... 
... 

Physical standby database opened for read only access. 
Completed: ALTER DATABASE OPEN /* db agent *//* {0:33:25} */ 

... 

SQL> select open_mode from v$database; 

OPEN_MODE 
-------------------- 
READ ONLY WITH APPLY

After killing the PMON, the instance dies and the Cluster takes over which is very good. However, the cluster is ignoring my startup options which I have configured beforehand. After upgrading GI and the Database to 12.1.0.2 with 2016 Oct PSU, I could not reproduce this issue anymore and I have a good solution for preventing Active Data Guard to be activated.

But what happens if my Primary host dies and a Failover is initiated by the observer. Then I do have two cluster resources with Primary and startup option OPEN. Let’s simulate this scenario by doing a shutdown abort with srvctl.

DGMGRL> show configuration;

Configuration - DBIT121

  Protection Mode: MaxAvailability
  Members:
  DBIT121_SITE1 - Primary database
    DBIT121_SITE2 - (*) Physical standby database

Fast-Start Failover: ENABLED

Configuration Status:
SUCCESS   (status updated 5 seconds ago)


$ srvctl stop database -db DBIT121_SITE1 -stopoption ABORT

 

After 30 seconds, the observer initiated a fast start failover, and the new primary is now on SITE2.

Initiating Fast-Start Failover to database "DBIT121_SITE2"...
Performing failover NOW, please wait...
Failover succeeded, new primary is "DBIT121_SITE2"

On SITE1 I still have the old Primary with Startup option OPEN. Not an issue at the moment, because it is a Primary and on a Primary there is no Active Data Guard. After I start up SITE1, a few moments later the reinstate takes place. Therefore, the database has to be brought again into the MOUNT state to do a “FLASHBACK DATABASE”.

$ srvctl start database -db DBIT121_SITE1

observer.log
...
Initiating reinstatement for database "DBIT121_SITE1"...
Reinstating database "DBIT121_SITE1", please wait...
Reinstatement of database "DBIT121_SITE1" succeeded

broker.log on old Primary
...
Data Guard notifying Oracle Clusterware to prepare database for role change
Database Reinstate needs instance count to be reduced to 1
Flashback SCN is 22408550; DB checkpoint SCN is 22405622. Flashback to SCN 22408550.
01/28/2017 10:59:25
Physical Standby Reinstatement: Converting old primary to a physical standby
01/28/2017 10:59:34
Conversion to physical standby database succeeded
Instance restart not required
Purging diverged redos on resetlogs branch 933516912, starting SCN 22408551
Purged 0 archived logs
Target standby DBIT121_SITE2 did not have Active Data Guard enabled at the time of failover.
To maintain Active Data Guard license compliance Block Change Tracking will be disabled.
01/28/2017 10:59:42
Notifying Oracle Clusterware to buildup after database reinstatement

The broker knows that Active DataGuard was not enabled beforehand, an so it does not enable it now.

$ crsctl stat res ora.DBIT121_SITE1.db -p | egrep '(USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE|ROLE)'
ROLE=PHYSICAL_STANDBY
USR_ORA_OPEN_MODE=mount


SQL> select open_mode from v$database;

OPEN_MODE
--------------------
MOUNTED

That’s it. This is my way to prevent Active Data Guard from being activated. :-)

Conclusion

Using cluster resources to prevent Active Data Guard from being activated is a fully supported way. You only need to take care that you are on GI/DB and Observer version 12.1.0.2 2016 Oct PSU or higher. Before that patchlevel, it never worked for me correctly with cluster resources. Besides that, use only Broker and the cluster srvctl commands to manage your Data Guard environment.

 

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Temporal tables with PostgreSQL

Fri, 2017-01-27 15:51

In this blog we are going to talk about a nice extension in PostgreSQL: temporal_tables. This extension provides support for temporal tables.
What is a temporal table? Just a table that tracks the period of validity of a row.
When implemented, this feature allows you to specify that old rows are archived into another table (that is called the history table). This can be useful for many purposes
-Audit
-Comparison
-Checking table state in the past
First we have to install the temporal_table extension. We are going to use the pgxn client to install the extension.
Install the yum repository for PostgreSQL

[root@pgserver1 ~]# rpm -ivh https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/9.6/redhat/rhel-7-x86_64/pgdg-oraclelinux96-9.6-3.noarch.rpm
Retrieving https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/9.6/redhat/rhel-7-x86_64/pgdg-oraclelinux96-9.6-3.noarch.rpm
warning: /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.3q9X12: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 442df0f8: NOKEY
Preparing... ################################# [100%] Updating / installing...
1:pgdg-oraclelinux96-9.6-3 ################################# [100%] [root@pgserver1 ~]#

And after we install the pgxn client

root@pgserver1 ~]# yum search pgxn
Loaded plugins: langpacks, ulninfo
pgdg96 | 4.1 kB 00:00:00
(1/2): pgdg96/7Server/x86_64/group_gz | 249 B 00:00:00
(2/2): pgdg96/7Server/x86_64/primary_db | 127 kB 00:00:00
==================================================== N/S matched: pgxn =====================================================
pgxnclient.x86_64 : Command line tool designed to interact with the PostgreSQL Extension Network
Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.


[root@pgserver1 ~]# yum install pgxnclient.x86_64
Loaded plugins: langpacks, ulninfo
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pgxnclient.x86_64 0:1.2.1-2.rhel7 will be installed
....
....
Installed:
pgxnclient.x86_64 0:1.2.1-2.rhel7
Complete!
[root@pgserver1 ~]#

And finally we can install the extension

[root@pgserver1 ~]# pgxn install temporal_tables --pg_config=/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/bin/pg_config
INFO: best version: temporal_tables 1.1.1
INFO: saving /tmp/tmpJit39m/temporal_tables-1.1.1.zip
INFO: unpacking: /tmp/tmpJit39m/temporal_tables-1.1.1.zip
INFO: building extension
gcc -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -O2 -DMAP_HUGETLB=0x40000 -fpic -I. -I./ -I/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/include/postgresql/server -I/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/include/postgresql/internal -D_GNU_SOURCE -I/opt/local/Current/include/libxml2 -I/opt/local/Current/include -c -o temporal_tables.o temporal_tables.c
gcc -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -O2 -DMAP_HUGETLB=0x40000 -fpic -I. -I./ -I/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/include/postgresql/server -I/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/include/postgresql/internal -D_GNU_SOURCE -I/opt/local/Current/include/libxml2 -I/opt/local/Current/include -c -o versioning.o versioning.c
gcc -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -O2 -DMAP_HUGETLB=0x40000 -fpic -shared -o temporal_tables.so temporal_tables.o versioning.o -L/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/lib -L/opt/local/Current/lib -Wl,--as-needed -Wl,-rpath,'/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/lib',--enable-new-dtags
INFO: installing extension
/bin/mkdir -p '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/lib/postgresql'
/bin/mkdir -p '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/share/postgresql/extension'
/bin/mkdir -p '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/share/postgresql/extension'
/bin/mkdir -p '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/doc/postgresql/extension'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 755 temporal_tables.so '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/lib/postgresql/temporal_tables.so'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 .//temporal_tables.control '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/share/postgresql/extension/'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 .//temporal_tables--1.1.1.sql .//temporal_tables--1.0.0--1.0.1.sql .//temporal_tables--1.0.1--1.0.2.sql .//temporal_tables--1.0.2--1.1.0.sql .//temporal_tables--1.1.0--1.1.1.sql '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/share/postgresql/extension/'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 .//README.md '/u01/app/PostgreSQL/9.6/doc/postgresql/extension/'
[root@pgserver1 ~]#

Once the installation done, we can load it in our database.

[postgres@pgserver1 extension]$ psql
Password:
psql.bin (9.6.1)
Type "help" for help.
postgres=# CREATE EXTENSION temporal_tables;
CREATE EXTENSION
postgres=#

We can then verify that the temporal extension is now present in our database.

postgres=# \dx
List of installed extensions
Name | Version | Schema | Description
-----------------+---------+------------+-----------------------------------------
adminpack | 1.0 | pg_catalog | administrative functions for PostgreSQL
plpgsql | 1.0 | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
temporal_tables | 1.1.1 | public | temporal tables
(3 rows)

postgres=# \dx+ temporal_tables
Objects in extension "temporal_tables"
Object Description
----------------------------------------------------
function set_system_time(timestamp with time zone)
function versioning()
(2 rows)

For the demonstration, we create the following table Customers

CREATE TABLE Customers (
CustNo SERIAL NOT NULL,
CustName VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
start_date timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT now(),
PRIMARY KEY (CustNo)
);

In order to make this table system-period temporal table we should first add a system period column

postgres=# ALTER TABLE Customers ADD COLUMN sys_period tstzrange NOT NULL;
ALTER TABLE

Then we need a history table that contains archived rows of our table. The easiest way to create it is by using LIKE statement

postgres=# CREATE TABLE Customers_history (LIKE Customers);
CREATE TABLE

Finally we create a trigger on our table to link it with the history table

postgres=# CREATE TRIGGER customers_hist_trigger BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON Customers FOR EACH ROW
EXECUTE PROCEDURE versioning('sys_period', 'Customers_history', true);
CREATE TRIGGER
postgres=#

Now Let’s insert data into customers

insert into customers (custname,start_date) values ('HP','2013-08-05 00:00:00');
insert into customers (custname,start_date) values ('IBM','2014-10-10 00:00:00');
insert into customers (custname,start_date) values ('DBI','2017-01-07 00:00:00');
insert into customers (custname) values ('DHL');

We can see below rows in customers.
For example the row concerning IBM was inserted on 2017-01-26 10:48:49. Information stored in the sys_period column and represents the starting validity of the row. Note the borders [,). The lower bound is [ and thus inclusive. The upper bound is ) which means it is exclusive.
For IBM [“2017-01-26 10:48:49.768031+01″,) means
Start of validity: 2017-01-26 10:48:49.
End of validity: infinity (because there is nothing).

postgres=# table customers;
custno | custname | start_date | sys_period
--------+----------+----------------------------+------------------------------------
1 | IBM | 2014-10-10 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.768031+01",)
2 | DBI | 2017-01-07 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.778487+01",)
3 | DHL | 2017-01-26 10:48:49.841405 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.841405+01",)
4 | HP | 2013-08-05 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:50:21.275201+01",)
(4 rows)

The table Customers_history is empty. This is normal because no update or delete are done, just we have inserted rows.

postgres=# table customers_history;
custno | custname | start_date | sys_period
--------+----------+------------+------------
(0 rows)
postgres=#

Let’s do an update on customers, but before let’s display the current time.
postgres=# select now();
now
-------------------------------
2017-01-26 11:02:32.381634+01
(1 row)


postgres=# update customers set custname='HPSuisse' where custno=4;
UPDATE 1
postgres=#

Verifying again the customers table, we can see that the validity of row concerning HPsuisse starts at 2017-01-26 11:02:46

postgres=# table customers;
custno | custname | start_date | sys_period
--------+----------+----------------------------+------------------------------------
1 | IBM | 2014-10-10 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.768031+01",)
2 | DBI | 2017-01-07 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.778487+01",)
3 | DHL | 2017-01-26 10:48:49.841405 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.841405+01",)
4 | HPSuisse | 2013-08-05 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 11:02:46.347574+01",)
(4 rows)

If we now query the table customers_history, we can see the row updated on the table customers with the validity of the row.

postgres=# table customers_history;
custno | custname | start_date | sys_period
--------+----------+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------
4 | HP | 2013-08-05 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:50:21.275201+01","2017-01-26 11:02:46.347574+01")

Let’s do a delete on the table customers

postgres=# select now();
now
-------------------------------
2017-01-26 11:32:12.229105+01
(1 row)


postgres=# delete from customers where custno=3;
DELETE 1

Below rows in table customers

postgres=# table customers;
custno | custname | start_date | sys_period
--------+----------+---------------------+------------------------------------
1 | IBM | 2014-10-10 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.768031+01",)
2 | DBI | 2017-01-07 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.778487+01",)
4 | HPSuisse | 2013-08-05 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 11:02:46.347574+01",)
(3 rows)

And in the history table, we can see a new row with the validity date.

postgres=# table customers_history;
custno | custname | start_date | sys_period
--------+----------+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------
4 | HP | 2013-08-05 00:00:00 | ["2017-01-26 10:50:21.275201+01","2017-01-26 11:02:46.347574+01")
3 | DHL | 2017-01-26 10:48:49.841405 | ["2017-01-26 10:48:49.841405+01","2017-01-26 11:32:15.370438+01")
(2 rows)

Conclusion
In this blog we see how temporal tables can be implemented with PostgreSQL using extention temporal_table. This feature can help for auditing, archiving,…
And the history table can be moved to lower storage.

 

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Part 2 – vagrant up – get your Oracle infrastructure up an running

Thu, 2017-01-26 08:31

Last week in the first part of this blog we have seen a short introduction how to setup an Oracle Infrastructure with Vagrant and Ansible. Remember all the files for this example are available here https://github.com/nkadbi/oracle-db-12c-vagrant-ansible
Get the example code:

git clone https://github.com/nkadbi/oracle-db-12c-vagrant-ansible

If you have prepared your environment with Ansible, Vagrant and Oracle Virtual Box installed – and provided the Oracle software zip files –
than you can just start to build your Test Infrastructure with the simple callvagrant up
cleanup is also easy- stop the vagrant machines and deletes all traces:
vagrant destroy
How does this work ?
vagrant up starts Vagrant which will setup two virtual servers using a sample box with CentOS 7.2.
When this has been finished Vagrant calls Ansible for provisioning which configures the linux servers, installs the Oracle software and creates your databases on the target servers in parallel.

Vagrant configuration
All the configuration for Vagrant is in one file called Vagrantfile
I used a box with CentOS 7.2 which you can find among other vagrant boxes here https://atlas.hashicorp.com/search
config.vm.box = "boxcutter/centos72" If you start vagrant up the first time it will download the vagrant box
$ vagrant up

Bringing machine 'dbserver1' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
Bringing machine 'dbserver2' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> dbserver1: Box 'boxcutter/centos72' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...
dbserver1: Box Provider: virtualbox
dbserver1: Box Version: >= 0
==> dbserver1: Loading metadata for box 'boxcutter/centos72'
dbserver1: URL: https://atlas.hashicorp.com/boxcutter/centos72
==> dbserver1: Adding box 'boxcutter/centos72' (v2.0.21) for provider: virtualbox
dbserver1: Downloading: https://atlas.hashicorp.com/boxcutter/boxes/centos72/versions/2.0.21/providers/virtualbox.box
==> dbserver1: Successfully added box 'boxcutter/centos72' (v2.0.21) for 'virtualbox'!
==> dbserver1: Importing base box 'boxcutter/centos72'...

I have chosen a private network for the virtual servers and use vagrant hostmanager plugin to take care of the /etc/hosts files on all guest machines (and optionally your localhost)
you can add this plugin to vagrant with:
vagrant plugin install vagrant-hostmanager
The corresponding part in the Vagrantfile will look like this:
config.hostmanager.enabled = true
config.hostmanager.ignore_private_ip = false # include private IPs of your VM's
config.vm.hostname = “dbserver1”
config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.56.31"

ssh Configuration
The Vagrant box comes already with ssh key configuration and- if security does not matter in your demo environment – the easiest way to configure ssh connection to your guest nodes is to use the same ssh key for all created virtual hosts.
config.ssh.insert_key = false # Use the same insecure key provided from box for each machine After bringing up the virtual servers you can display the ssh settings:
vagrant ssh-config The important lines from the output are:
Host dbserver1
HostName 127.0.0.1
User vagrant
Port 2222
IdentityFile /home/user/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key
You should be able to reach your guest server without password with user vagrant
vagrant ssh dbserver1
Than you can switch to user oracle ( password = welcome1 ) or root (default password for vagrant boxes vagrant) su - oracle or directly connect with ssh ssh vagrant@127.0.0.1 -p 2222 -i /home/user/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key
Virtual Disks
I added additional virtual disks because I wanted to separate data file destination from fast recovery area destination. # attach disks only localy
if ! File.exist?("dbserver#{i}_disk_a.vdi") # create disks only once
v.customize ['createhd', '--filename', "dbserver#{i}_disk_a.vdi", '--size', 8192 ] v.customize ['createhd', '--filename', "dbserver#{i}_disk_b.vdi", '--size', 8192 ] v.customize ['storageattach', :id, '--storagectl', 'SATA Controller', '--port', 1, '--device', 0, '--type', 'hdd', '--medium', "dbserver#{i}_disk_a.vdi"] v.customize ['storageattach', :id, '--storagectl', 'SATA Controller', '--port', 2, '--device', 0, '--type', 'hdd', '--medium', "dbserver#{i}_disk_b.vdi"] end # create disks only once

Provisioning with Ansible
At the end of the Vagrantfile provisioning with Ansible is called.
N = 2
(1..N).each do |i| # do for each server i
...
if i == N
config.vm.provision "ansible" do |ansible| # vm.provisioning
#ansible.verbose = "v"
ansible.playbook = "oracle-db.yml"
ansible.groups = { "dbserver" => ["dbserver1","dbserver2"] }
ansible.limit = 'all'
end # end vm.provisioning
end
end
To prevent the Ansible provisioning to start before all servers have been setup by Vagrant, I included the condition if i == N , where N is the number of desired servers.

Ansible Inventory
The Ansible Inventory is a collection of guest hosts against which Ansible will work.
You can either put the information in an inventory file or let Vagrant create an Inventory file for you. Vagrant does this if you did not specify any inventory file.
To enable Ansible to connect to the target hosts without password Ansible has to know the ssh key provided by the vagrant box.
Example Ansible Inventory:
# Generated by Vagrant
dbserver2 ansible_ssh_host=127.0.0.1 ansible_ssh_port=2200 ansible_ssh_user='vagrant' ansible_ssh_private_key_file='/home/user/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key'
dbserver1 ansible_ssh_host=127.0.0.1 ansible_ssh_port=2222 ansible_ssh_user='vagrant' ansible_ssh_private_key_file='/home/user/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key'
[dbserver] dbserver1
dbserver2
You can see that the inventory created by Vagrant presents the necessary information to Ansible to connect to the targets and has also defined the group dbserver which includes the server dbserver1 and dbserver2.

Ansible configuration
tell Ansible where to find the inventory in the ansible.cfg.
nocows=1
hostfile = .vagrant/provisioners/ansible/inventory/vagrant_ansible_inventory
host_key_checking = False

Ansible Variables
In this example I have put the general variables for all servers containing an Oracle Database into this file:
group_vars/dbserver
The more specific variables including variables used to create the database like the database name, character set
can be adapted individual for each server:
host_vars/dbserver1,host_vars/dbserver2

Ansible Playbook
The Ansible playbook is a simple textfile written in YAML syntax, which is easy readable.
Our playbook oracle-db.yml has only one play called “ Configure Oracle Linux 7 with Oracle Database 12c” which will be applied on all servers belonging to the group dbserver. In my example Vagrant creates the vagrant inventory and initiates the play of the playbook but you can also start it stand-alone or repeat it if you want.
ansible-playbook oracle-db.yml
This is the whole playbook, to configure the servers and install Oracle Databases:
$cat oracle-db.yml
---
- name: Configure Oracle Linux 7 with Oracle Database 12c
hosts: dbserver
become: True
vars_files:
# User Passwords hashed are stored here:
- secrets.yml
roles:
- role: disk_layout
- role: linux_oracle
- role: oracle_sw_install
become_user: '{{ oracle_user }}'
- role: oracle_db_create
become_user: '{{ oracle_user }}'

Ansible roles
To make the playbook oracle-db.yml lean and to be more flexible I have split all the tasks into different roles.This makes it easy to reuse parts of the playbook or skip parts. For example if you only want to install the oracle software on the server, but do not want to create databases you can just delete the role oracle_db_create from the playbook.
You (and Ansible ) will find the files containing the tasks for a role in the directory roles/my_role_name/main.yml.
There can be further directories. The default directory structure looks like below. If you want to create a new role you can even create the directory structure by using ansible-galaxy. Ansible Galaxy is Ansible’s official community hub for sharing Ansible roles. https://galaxy.ansible.com/intro

# example to create the directory structure for the role "my_role_name"
ansible-galaxy init my_role_name


# default Ansible role directory structure
roles/
my_role_name/
defaults/
files/
handlers/
meta/
tasks/
templates/
vars/

Ansible Modules
Ansible will run the tasks described in the playbook on the target servers by invoking Ansible Modules.
This Ansible Web Page http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/list_of_all_modules.html shows information about Modules ordered by categories.
You can also get information about all the Ansible modules from command line:

# list all modules
ansible-doc --list
# example to show documentation about the Ansible module "copy"
ansible-doc copy

One Example:
To install the oracle software with response file I use the Ansible module called “template”. Ansible uses Jinja2, a templating engine for Python.
This makes it very easy to design reusable templates. For example Ansible will replace {{ oracle_home }} with the variable, which I have defined in group_vars/dbserver, and than copies the response file to the target servers:

Snipped from the Jinja2 template db_install.rsp.j2

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Home.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_HOME={{ oracle_home }}

Snipped from roles/oracle_sw_install/tasks/main.yml

- name: Gerenerate the response file for software only installation
template: src=db_install.rsp.j2 dest={{ installation_folder }}/db_install.rsp

Ansible Adhoc Commands – Some Use Cases
Immediately after installing Ansible you already can use Ansible to gather facts from your localhost which will give you a lot of information:
ansible localhost -m setup
Use Ansible adhoc command with module ping to check if you can reach all target servers listed in your inventory file:

$ ansible all -m ping
dbserver2 | SUCCESS => {
"changed": false,
"ping": "pong"
}
dbserver1 | SUCCESS => {
"changed": false,
"ping": "pong"
}

File transfer – spread a file to all servers in the group dbserver
ansible dbserver -m copy -b -a "src=/etc/hosts dest=/etc/hosts"

Conclusion
With the open source tools Vagrant and Ansible you can easily automate the setup of your infrastructure.
Even if you do not want to automate everything, Ansible still can help you with your daily work if you want to check or apply something on several servers.
Just group your servers in an inventory and run an Ansible Adhoc Command or write a small playbook.

Please keep in mind that this is a simplified example for an automated Oracle Database Installation.
Do not use this example for productive environments.

 

Cet article Part 2 – vagrant up – get your Oracle infrastructure up an running est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

Oracle 12cR2 – RMAN cold backup with TAG’s

Thu, 2017-01-26 07:35

I am planning to backup my 12R2 container database, because a huge application change is coming up,
and I want to be sure that I have a good RMAN backup beforehand. For that particular DB, I want to do it with a cold backup in combination with RMAN tags. Unfortunately I don’t have any backups at the moment, so I start with a full backup with the TAG ‘DBI_BACKUP’ to be 100% that I restore the correct one.

RMAN> list backup summary;

specification does not match any backup in the repository

RMAN> shutdown immediate

database closed
database dismounted
Oracle instance shut down

RMAN> startup mount

connected to target database (not started)
Oracle instance started
database mounted

Total System Global Area    1795162112 bytes

Fixed Size                     8793832 bytes
Variable Size                553648408 bytes
Database Buffers            1224736768 bytes
Redo Buffers                   7983104 bytes

RMAN> run
    {
         allocate channel c1 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
     allocate channel c2 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
         allocate channel c3 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
     allocate channel c4 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
     BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 FORCE AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DATABASE plus archivelog tag 'DBI_BACKUP';
         backup current controlfile tag 'DBI_BACKUP' format '/u99/backup/CDB/control_%U';
         backup spfile tag 'DBI_BACKUP' format '/u99/backup/CDB/spfile_%U';
         release channel c1;
         release channel c2;
         release channel c3;
         release channel c4;
    }2> 3> 4> 5> 6> 7> 8> 9> 10> 11> 12> 13> 14>

allocated channel: c1
channel c1: SID=16 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c2
channel c2: SID=271 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c3
channel c3: SID=31 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c4
channel c4: SID=272 device type=DISK


Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:18:53
current log archived
channel c1: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=4 RECID=3 STAMP=934074668
input archived log thread=1 sequence=5 RECID=4 STAMP=934154679
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:18:53
channel c2: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=2 RECID=1 STAMP=934038010
input archived log thread=1 sequence=3 RECID=2 STAMP=934066843
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:18:53
channel c3: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c3: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=6 RECID=5 STAMP=934203623
input archived log thread=1 sequence=7 RECID=6 STAMP=934275778
input archived log thread=1 sequence=8 RECID=7 STAMP=934284094
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:18:53
channel c4: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c4: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=9 RECID=8 STAMP=934284153
input archived log thread=1 sequence=10 RECID=9 STAMP=934284199
input archived log thread=1 sequence=11 RECID=10 STAMP=934291133
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:18:53
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:18:54
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2arr09lt_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:08
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_27rr09lt_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:08
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_28rr09lt_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:08
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_29rr09lt_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:08

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:08
channel c1: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81c2wsf_.dbf
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:09
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81c49wd_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:09
channel c3: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00010 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81cgjc2_.dbf
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:09
channel c4: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c4: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81cgjbv_.dbf
input datafile file number=00011 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81cgjc2_.dbf
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:09
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:24
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2err09md_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel c4: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c4: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00006 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81c6fqn_.dbf
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:24
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:39
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2drr09md_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:30
channel c3: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00013 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_rman_d8ccofgs_.dbf
input datafile file number=00012 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_users_d81cgq9f_.dbf
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:39
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:40
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2grr09nb_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c3: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00005 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81c6fqo_.dbf
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:41
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:41
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2crr09md_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:32
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00008 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81c6fqp_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:41
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:44
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2irr09nd_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81c530h_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:44
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:45
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2jrr09ng_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_users_d81c542r_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:45
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:46
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2krr09nh_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:52
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2brr09md_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:43
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:52
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2hrr09nd_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:11
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:52
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2frr09ms_1_1 tag=TAG20170126T131908 comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:28
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:52

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:52
current log archived
channel c1: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=12 RECID=11 STAMP=934291192
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:53
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:54
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_2lrr09np_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:54

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:54
channel c1: starting full datafile backup set
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current control file in backup set
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:55
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:56
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/control_2mrr09nq_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:56

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:56
channel c1: starting full datafile backup set
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:56
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:57
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/spfile_2nrr09ns_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:57

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:57
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/CDB/autobackup/2017_01_26/o1_mf_s_934291197_d8mtcfjz_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JAN-2017 13:19:58

released channel: c1

released channel: c2

released channel: c3

released channel: c4

RMAN>

After the backup was done, I do a quick “list backup summary” to see if everything is there, and also check the destination directory.

RMAN> list backup summary tag 'DBI_BACKUP';

List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
67      B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:18:54 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
68      B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:19:02 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
69      B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:19:07 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
70      B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:19:07 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
81      B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:19:53 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
82      B  F  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:19:55 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP
83      B  F  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:19:56 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP

RMAN>

oracle@dbidg03:/u99/backup/CDB/ [CDB] ls -l
total 975304
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  18792448 Jan 26 13:19 control_2mrr09nq_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 112111616 Jan 26 13:19 database_27rr09lt_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 112711168 Jan 26 13:19 database_28rr09lt_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  58626048 Jan 26 13:19 database_29rr09lt_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall   3691520 Jan 26 13:18 database_2arr09lt_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 215056384 Jan 26 13:19 database_2brr09md_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 132710400 Jan 26 13:19 database_2crr09md_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 112173056 Jan 26 13:19 database_2drr09md_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  56778752 Jan 26 13:19 database_2err09md_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 110149632 Jan 26 13:19 database_2frr09ms_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall   1507328 Jan 26 13:19 database_2grr09nb_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  54157312 Jan 26 13:19 database_2hrr09nd_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall   7716864 Jan 26 13:19 database_2irr09nd_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall   1327104 Jan 26 13:19 database_2jrr09ng_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall   1073152 Jan 26 13:19 database_2krr09nh_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall      7680 Jan 26 13:19 database_2lrr09np_1_1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall    114688 Jan 26 13:19 spfile_2nrr09ns_1_1

But to be really 100% sure that I can restore the backup from TAG, I do a restore preview. The restore preview exists for quite a while now, but it is not so widly used for whatever reasons, I don’t know. I find it quite useful.

RMAN> restore database preview from tag 'DBI_BACKUP';

Starting restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:22:49
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=16 device type=DISK

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 01/26/2017 13:22:49
RMAN-06026: some targets not found - aborting restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 13 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 12 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 11 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 10 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 9 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 8 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 7 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 6 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 5 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 4 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 3 found to restore
RMAN-06023: no backup or copy of datafile 1 found to restore

RMAN>

Oh no … that doesn’t look good. RMAN complaints that no backup or copy exists for all datafiles. What is going here? Is my backup useless? Yes and no. If I rely only on the TAG, then yes. However, the RMAN backup have been created successfully but with two different TAG’s. For the datafiles it used tag=TAG20170126T131908 and for the archivelogs, the controlfile and the spfile it used tag=DBI_BACKUP.

So what is wrong here? The TAG was simply specified at the wrong location. If you put tag after archivelog, then only the archivelogs get that tag.

BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 FORCE AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DATABASE plus archivelog tag 'DBI_BACKUP';

If you want to have the datafiles and the archivelogs tagged correctly, you have to put it after level 0 in my case. That’s usually enough.

BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 tag 'DBI_BACKUP' FORCE AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DATABASE plus archivelog;

Or if you want to be double sure and you are sort of paranoid, you can specify it twice, one after level 0, and one after archivelog.

BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 tag 'DBI_BACKUP' FORCE AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DATABASE plus archivelog tag 'DBI_BACKUP';

ok. So lets try it again from scratch. But this time I put the Tag after LEVEL 0.

RMAN> list backup summary;

specification does not match any backup in the repository

RMAN> shutdown immediate

database closed
database dismounted
Oracle instance shut down

RMAN> startup mount

connected to target database (not started)
Oracle instance started
database mounted

Total System Global Area    1795162112 bytes

Fixed Size                     8793832 bytes
Variable Size                553648408 bytes
Database Buffers            1224736768 bytes
Redo Buffers                   7983104 bytes


RMAN> run
    {
         allocate channel c1 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
     allocate channel c2 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
         allocate channel c3 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
     allocate channel c4 device type disk format '/u99/backup/CDB/database_%U';
     BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 tag 'DBI_BACKUP' FORCE AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DATABASE plus archivelog;
         backup current controlfile tag 'DBI_BACKUP' format '/u99/backup/CDB/control_%U';
         backup spfile tag 'DBI_BACKUP' format '/u99/backup/CDB/spfile_%U';
         release channel c1;
         release channel c2;
         release channel c3;
         release channel c4;
    }2> 3> 4> 5> 6> 7> 8> 9> 10> 11> 12> 13> 14>

allocated channel: c1
channel c1: SID=237 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c2
channel c2: SID=20 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c3
channel c3: SID=254 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c4
channel c4: SID=22 device type=DISK


Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:45
channel c1: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=4 RECID=3 STAMP=934074668
input archived log thread=1 sequence=5 RECID=4 STAMP=934154679
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:46
channel c2: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=2 RECID=1 STAMP=934038010
input archived log thread=1 sequence=3 RECID=2 STAMP=934066843
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:46
channel c3: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c3: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=6 RECID=5 STAMP=934203623
input archived log thread=1 sequence=7 RECID=6 STAMP=934275778
input archived log thread=1 sequence=8 RECID=7 STAMP=934284094
input archived log thread=1 sequence=9 RECID=8 STAMP=934284153
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:46
channel c4: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c4: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=10 RECID=9 STAMP=934284199
input archived log thread=1 sequence=11 RECID=10 STAMP=934291133
input archived log thread=1 sequence=12 RECID=11 STAMP=934291192
input archived log thread=1 sequence=13 RECID=12 STAMP=934291966
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:46
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:47
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3frr0b4i_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c4: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel c4: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=14 RECID=13 STAMP=934292026
input archived log thread=1 sequence=15 RECID=14 STAMP=934292464
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:47
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:43:48
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3grr0b4j_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3crr0b4i_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:16
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3drr0b4i_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:16
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3err0b4i_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:16
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
channel c1: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81c2wsf_.dbf
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81c49wd_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
channel c3: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00010 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81cgjc2_.dbf
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:02
channel c4: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c4: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81cgjbv_.dbf
input datafile file number=00011 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81cgjc2_.dbf
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:03
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:18
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3krr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel c4: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c4: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00006 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81c6fqn_.dbf
channel c4: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:18
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:33
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3jrr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:31
channel c3: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00013 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_rman_d8ccofgs_.dbf
input datafile file number=00012 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_users_d81cgq9f_.dbf
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:33
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:34
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3mrr0b61_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c3: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00005 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81c6fqo_.dbf
channel c3: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:35
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:38
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3irr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:36
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00008 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81c6fqp_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:38
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:41
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3orr0b66_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81c530h_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:41
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:42
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3prr0b69_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c2: starting compressed incremental level 0 datafile backup set
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_users_d81c542r_.dbf
channel c2: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:43
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:44
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3hrr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:42
channel c2: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:44
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3qrr0b6b_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c3: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:46
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3nrr0b62_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:11
channel c4: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:46
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3lrr0b5i_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:28
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:46

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:46
specification does not match any archived log in the repository
backup cancelled because there are no files to backup
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:46

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:46
channel c1: starting full datafile backup set
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current control file in backup set
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:47
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:48
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/control_3rrr0b6e_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:48

Starting backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:48
channel c1: starting full datafile backup set
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:48
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:49
piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/spfile_3srr0b6g_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP comment=NONE
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:49

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:49
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/CDB/autobackup/2017_01_26/o1_mf_s_934292553_d8mvt1l0_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JAN-2017 13:44:50

released channel: c1

released channel: c2

released channel: c3

released channel: c4

RMAN>

As you can see in the log, all backup pieces have been done with tag=DBI_BACKUP. But let’s double check it again.

RMAN> list backup summary tag 'DBI_BACKUP';

List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
104     B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:43:46 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
105     B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:43:47 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
106     B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:43:54 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
107     B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:43:59 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
108     B  A  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:43:59 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
109     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:14 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
110     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:30 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
111     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:34 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
112     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:36 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
113     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:39 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
114     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:41 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
115     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:43 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
116     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:43 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
117     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:44 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
118     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:44 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
119     B  F  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:47 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP
120     B  F  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:48 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP

RMAN> restore database preview summary from tag 'DBI_BACKUP';

Starting restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:45:26
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=237 device type=DISK

List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
116     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:43 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
112     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:36 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
114     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:41 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
117     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:44 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
118     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:44 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
115     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:43 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
113     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:39 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
109     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:14 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
110     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:30 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
111     B  0  A DISK        26-JAN-2017 13:44:34 1       1       YES        DBI_BACKUP
using channel ORA_DISK_1

archived logs generated after SCN 1904449 not found in repository
recovery will be done up to SCN 1904449
Media recovery start SCN is 1904449
Recovery must be done beyond SCN 1904725 to clear datafile fuzziness
Finished restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:45:26

RMAN>

Ok. Very good. That looks promising now. :-) Let’s do the application changes now …

RMAN> alter database open;

Statement processed

-- Do some application changes ...

SQL> create table x ...
SQL> create table y ...
SQL> create table z ...

And the final test is of course, to do the real restore/recovery to the point where the cold backup was done.

RMAN> shutdown abort

Oracle instance shut down

RMAN> startup nomount

connected to target database (not started)
Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area    1795162112 bytes

Fixed Size                     8793832 bytes
Variable Size                553648408 bytes
Database Buffers            1224736768 bytes
Redo Buffers                   7983104 bytes

RMAN> restore controlfile from '/u99/backup/CDB/control_3rrr0b6e_1_1';

Starting restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:48:50
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=237 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
output file name=/u02/oradata/CDB/controlfile/o1_mf_d81c6189_.ctl
output file name=/u03/fast_recovery_area/CDB/controlfile/o1_mf_d81c61b4_.ctl
Finished restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:48:51

RMAN> alter database mount;

Statement processed
released channel: ORA_DISK_1

	
RMAN> run
    {
         allocate channel c1 device type disk;
     allocate channel c2 device type disk;
         allocate channel c3 device type disk;
     allocate channel c4 device type disk;
     restore database from tag 'DBI_BACKUP';
         release channel c1;
         release channel c2;
         release channel c3;
         release channel c4;
    }2> 3> 4> 5> 6> 7> 8> 9> 10> 11> 12>

allocated channel: c1
channel c1: SID=256 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c2
channel c2: SID=24 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c3
channel c3: SID=257 device type=DISK

allocated channel: c4
channel c4: SID=25 device type=DISK

Starting restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:49:39
Starting implicit crosscheck backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:49:39
Crosschecked 15 objects
Finished implicit crosscheck backup at 26-JAN-2017 13:49:40

Starting implicit crosscheck copy at 26-JAN-2017 13:49:40
Finished implicit crosscheck copy at 26-JAN-2017 13:49:40

searching for all files in the recovery area
cataloging files...
cataloging done

List of Cataloged Files
=======================
File Name: /u03/fast_recovery_area/CDB/autobackup/2017_01_26/o1_mf_s_934292553_d8mvt1l0_.bkp


skipping datafile 5; already restored to file /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81c6fqo_.dbf
skipping datafile 6; already restored to file /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81c6fqn_.dbf
skipping datafile 8; already restored to file /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81c6fqp_.dbf
channel c1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c1: restoring datafile 00009 to /u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81cgjbv_.dbf
channel c1: restoring datafile 00011 to /u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81cgjc2_.dbf
channel c1: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3krr0b52_1_1
channel c2: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c2: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c2: restoring datafile 00010 to /u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81cgjc2_.dbf
channel c2: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3jrr0b52_1_1
channel c3: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c3: restoring datafile 00012 to /u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_users_d81cgq9f_.dbf
channel c3: restoring datafile 00013 to /u02/oradata/CDB/46727C2ED8612B70E053CB38A8C078C9/datafile/o1_mf_rman_d8ccofgs_.dbf
channel c3: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3mrr0b61_1_1
channel c4: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c4: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c4: restoring datafile 00003 to /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d81c49wd_.dbf
channel c4: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3irr0b52_1_1
channel c3: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3mrr0b61_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c3: restored backup piece 1
channel c3: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel c3: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c3: restoring datafile 00004 to /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d81c530h_.dbf
channel c3: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3prr0b69_1_1
channel c3: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3prr0b69_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c3: restored backup piece 1
channel c3: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c3: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c3: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c3: restoring datafile 00001 to /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_system_d81c2wsf_.dbf
channel c3: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3hrr0b52_1_1
channel c1: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3krr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c1: restored backup piece 1
channel c1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:20
channel c1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel c1: restoring datafile 00007 to /u02/oradata/CDB/datafile/o1_mf_users_d81c542r_.dbf
channel c1: reading from backup piece /u99/backup/CDB/database_3qrr0b6b_1_1
channel c1: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3qrr0b6b_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c1: restored backup piece 1
channel c1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel c2: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3jrr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c2: restored backup piece 1
channel c2: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:27
channel c4: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3irr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c4: restored backup piece 1
channel c4: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35
channel c3: piece handle=/u99/backup/CDB/database_3hrr0b52_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP
channel c3: restored backup piece 1
channel c3: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:40
Finished restore at 26-JAN-2017 13:50:25

released channel: c1

released channel: c2

released channel: c3

released channel: c4

RMAN>

No recovery is needed here, because it was an cold RMAN backup. You can just open the database with open resetslogs.

RMAN> alter database open RESETLOGS;

Statement processed
Conclusion

Take care that you put your RMAN Tags at the correct location.

 

Cet article Oracle 12cR2 – RMAN cold backup with TAG’s est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

Documentum D2 4.5 and IE compatibility and F5

Thu, 2017-01-26 02:26

We had a problem with a customer where D2 was not loading properly in IE when going through F5 (load balancer). When trying to access D2 through the F5, let’s say: https://d2prod/D2 only a few menus and some part of the workspace were loading but it ended to say “Unexpected error occured”.

Investigation

It would have been too easy if this error appeared in the logs, but it didn’t. So that means it was not a D2 internal error but maybe in the interface or the way it is loading in IE. Because, fun fact, it was loading properly in Chrome. Additional fun fact, when using a superuser account it was also loading properly in IE!

As it was an interface error I used the IE debugging tool F12. At first I didn’t see the error in the console but when digging a bit inside all the verbose logs I found this:

SEVERE: An unexpected error occurred. Please refresh your browser
com.google.gwt.core.client.JavaScriptException: (TypeError) 
 description: Object doesn't support property or method 'querySelectorAll'
number: -2146827850: Object doesn't support property or method 'querySelectorAll'

After some researches I figured out that others had issues with “querySelectorAll” and IE. In fact it was depending on the version of  IE used because this function was not available prior IE 9.

Hence I came to the idea that my IE was not in the right compatibility mode, because I had IE 11, so it couldn’t be a version mismatch.

Fortunately thanks to the F12 console you can change the compatibility mode:

Capture_Compat_8

As I thought, the compatibility mode was set (and blocked) to 8, which was not supporting “querySelectorAll”. But I couldn’t change it to a higher value. Hence, I figured this out:

Capture_Compat_Enterprise

I was in Enterprise Mode. This mode forces the compatibility version and some other sort of things. Fortunately you can disable it in the browser by going into the “Tools” menu of IE. Then, like magic, I was able to switch to the compatibility version 10:

Capture_Compat_10_2

And, miracle. The D2 interface reloaded properly, with all menus and workspaces. You remember it was working with superuser accounts? In fact, when using a superuser account the Enterprise Mode was not activated and the Compatibility version was set to 10.

The question is, why was it forced to 8?

Solution

In fact, it was customer related. They had a policy rule applying for the old D2 (3.1) which needed the Enterprise Mode and compatibility mode set to 8. So when using the old dns link to point to the new D2, these modes were still applied.

So we asked to disable the Enterprise Mode and the compatibility mode returned to 10 by default. So be careful with IE in your company ;)

 

Cet article Documentum D2 4.5 and IE compatibility and F5 est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

Exadata Express Cloud Service: PDB_ADMIN privileges

Tue, 2017-01-24 15:39

I usually explain that the main point about Multitenant Architecture is the separation of roles between a system DBA who manages the container, and is responsible for its availability, and application DBA who owns all the application objects, and is responsible for data integrity and performance. The Exadata Express Cloud Service is the implementation of that: a CDB managed by Oracle and a PDB that you administrate. But the fact that the system is shared, over the internet, brings the necessity for new limitations. Let’s see what you can do or not as a PDB administrator.

CaptureEXCS024 When you create a pluggable database you need to provide a local user and its password. When you create an Exadata Express Cloud Service, the PDM_ADMIN user is created but the account is locked. You need to provide your password in order to unlock it. Then, this PDB_ADMIN is the only user for which you know the password.

But what really means ‘PDB administrator’? Which privileges do you have?

System privileges

PDB_ADMIN looks like a DBA. He is not granted ‘DBA’ but ‘PDB_DBA’ and many other roles.
Let’s see which system privileges are not granted, either directly or though a path of roles:

with my_user_roles(grantee,granted_role) as (
select grantee,granted_role from dba_role_privs where grantee='PDB_ADMIN' union all select r.grantee,r.granted_role from dba_role_privs r join my_user_roles u on r.grantee =u.granted_role
) select listagg(privilege,',')within group(order by privilege) from (
select distinct privilege from dba_sys_privs minus select distinct privilege from dba_sys_privs where grantee in (select granted_role from my_user_roles));
 
LISTAGG(PRIVILEGE,',')WITHINGROUP(ORDERBYPRIVILEGE)
---------------------------------------------------
ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT,BACKUP ANY TABLE,BECOME USER,CREATE ANY CREDENTIAL,CREATE ANY DIRECTORY,CREATE ANY JOB,CREATE ANY LIBRARY,CREATE CREDENTIAL,CREATE DATABASE LINK,CREATE EXTERNAL JOB,CREATE LIBRARY,CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK,DROP ANY DIRECTORY,DROP PUBLIC DATABASE LINK,EM EXPRESS CONNECT,EXECUTE ANY CLASS,EXECUTE ANY PROGRAM,EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY,EXEMPT DDL REDACTION POLICY,EXEMPT DML REDACTION POLICY,EXEMPT REDACTION POLICY,EXPORT FULL DATABASE,FLASHBACK ANY TABLE,FLASHBACK ARCHIVE ADMINISTER,FORCE TRANSACTION,GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE,GRANT ANY ROLE,IMPORT FULL DATABASE,INHERIT ANY PRIVILEGES,LOGMINING,MANAGE ANY FILE GROUP,MANAGE FILE GROUP,MANAGE SCHEDULER,SELECT ANY TRANSACTION,UNLIMITED TABLESPACE,USE ANY JOB RESOURCE,USE ANY SQL TRANSLATION PROFILE

So your PDB_ADMIN has some system privileges. For example you can gather system statistics:

SQL> exec dbms_stats.gather_system_stats;
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
 
SNAME PNAME PVAL1 PVAL2
----- ----- ----- -----
SYSSTATS_INFO STATUS COMPLETED
SYSSTATS_INFO DSTART 01-24-2017 19:48
SYSSTATS_INFO DSTOP 01-24-2017 19:48
SYSSTATS_INFO FLAGS 1
SYSSTATS_MAIN CPUSPEEDNW 3097
SYSSTATS_MAIN IOSEEKTIM 7
SYSSTATS_MAIN IOTFRSPEED 4096

but you cannot create database links or directories, which may be considered as application objects:

create directory mydir as '/tmp'
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
 
SQL> create database link mydblink connect to pdb_admin identified by "Ach1z0#d" using '//localhost';
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

What you should understand is that you have a PDB, in a shared CDB, it is yours and you can do whatever you want as long as it has no side effects on your neighbours. You will see that communication with the external world (network, filesystem, host server) are very limited.

Lockdown profiles

Now we will see that the privileges we have are going beyond those that you can see in DBA_SYS_PRIVS and DBA_ROLE_PRIVS.

From my query above, I have the ALTER SYSTEM privilege, so I can change some parameters:

SQL> alter system set temp_undo_enabled=true;
System SET altered.
SQL> alter system set cursor_sharing=exact;
System SET altered.

However, some parameters cannot be set:

SQL> alter session set max_idle_time=60;
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
SQL> alter system set sga_target=3G;
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
SQL> alter system set sql_trace=true;
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

and most of the other ALTER SYSTEM statements are forbidden:

SQL> alter system flush shared_pool;
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

This is forbidden by a multitenant lockdown profile, which gives a finer grain than privileges: it disables some statements, or statements clauses or options. The bad thing about it is that you don’t know what you are allowed or not. Always the same ‘insufficient privileges’ and the detail is stored only on CDB$ROOT. From the PDB:

SQL> select * from dba_lockdown_profiles;
no rows selected

the only thing that can be known from the PDB is the name of the lockdown profile:

SQL> show parameter lockdown
NAME TYPE VALUE
------------ ------ -----
pdb_lockdown string S20

That’s not a coincidence. I’m on a ‘S20′ service (30 GB storage, 3GB SGA) and the lockdown profile is associated with the service level.
Of course, you cannot change it:

SQL> alter system set pdb_lockdown='S50';
ORA-32017: failure in updating SPFILE
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
 
SQL> alter system set pdb_lockdown='S50' scope=memory;
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

Always the same message… Before 12cR2 you just query the system privileges to understand why you get this message. Now, you need to ask to your CDB administrator. Of course, for Exadata Express Cloud Service, this is documented in limitations.

Lockdown profiles are not only for ALTER SYSTEM.
You have a few things that you cannot do with ALTER SESSION, such as setting SQL Trace, any Event, and any underscore parameter is also forbidden. ALTER DATABASE and ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE allow only OPEN/CLOSE, or change default edition, default tablespace and temporary tablespace. On datafiles, you can only resize and set autoextend on/off. You can also set the time zone.

Well, I’m not completely sure about CLOSE:

SQL> alter pluggable database close immediate;
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
alter pluggable database open
ORA-65019: pluggable database EPTDOJVM1KG already open

Lockdown profiles goes beyond enabling or disable statements. It can disable a few features that you see mentioned in ‘limitations': you can’t create a manual AWR snapshot, can’t access the OS files by any way (UTL_FILE is disabled), can’t use any network protocol (UTL_TCP, UTL_MAIL,…)

So what?

I’m a DBA and connecting to a database where I’m not SYSDBA is a bit frustrating. PDB_ADMIN is granted SYSOPER but is locked in the password file. I’ve unlocked PDB_ADMIN but it is still EXPIRED & LOCKED in password file;

SQL> select * from dba_users where username='PDB_ADMIN';
 
USERNAME USER_ID PASSWORD ACCOUNT_STATUS LOCK_DATE EXPIRY_DATE DEFAULT_TABLESPACE TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE LOCAL_TEMP_TABLESPACE CREATED PROFILE INITIAL_RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP EXTERNAL_NAME PASSWORD_VERSIONS EDITIONS_ENABLED AUTHENTICATION_TYPE PROXY_ONLY_CONNECT COMMON LAST_LOGIN ORACLE_MAINTAINED INHERITED DEFAULT_COLLATION IMPLICIT
-------- ------- -------- -------------- --------- ----------- ------------------ -------------------- --------------------- ------- ------- --------------------------- ------------- ----------------- ---------------- ------------------- ------------------ ------ ---------- ----------------- --------- ----------------- --------
PDB_ADMIN 94 OPEN 22-JUL-2017 19:17:41 SYSEXT TEMP TEMP 27-JUL-2016 17:05:02 DEFAULT DEFAULT_CONSUMER_GROUP 11G 12C N PASSWORD N NO 24-JAN-17 08.46.02.000000000 PM EUROPE/BERLIN N NO USING_NLS_COMP NO
 
SQL> select * from v$pwfile_users where username='PDB_ADMIN';
 
USERNAME SYSDBA SYSOPER SYSASM SYSBACKUP SYSDG SYSKM ACCOUNT_STATUS PASSWORD_PROFILE LAST_LOGIN LOCK_DATE EXPIRY_DATE EXTERNAL_NAME AUTHENTICATION_TYPE COMMON CON_ID
-------- ------ ------- ------ --------- ----- ----- -------------- ---------------- ---------- --------- ----------- ------------- ------------------- ------ ------
PDB_ADMIN FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE EXPIRED & LOCKED DEFAULT 07-JAN-2017 04:47:03 07-JAN-2017 04:47:03 PASSWORD NO 47

Keep in mind that this service is not for system DBA. You have the DBaaS for this. This is Oracle managed PDBaaS for developers and developers will get lot of freedom here: ability to test any feature, any optimizer setting, etc. This is a lot more than what Amazon RDS allows. You don’t have file or network access, but this is for small databases and it is totally integrated with SQL Developer to move data. No sql trace, no tkprof, but you have SQL Monitor. This is a very interesting platform for development small projects, 12cR2 features testing or prototypes. Very easy and fast to start. You can connect and code with APEX, .Net, Java, OCI…

 

Cet article Exadata Express Cloud Service: PDB_ADMIN privileges est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

Oracle 12cR2 – DataGuard and Backups to NFS

Tue, 2017-01-24 02:11

From the RMAN point of view, you have generally two possibilities to store your backups, on Disk or on Tape. In case of a single instance, it doesn’t really matter from the accessible or inaccessible point of view. However, in a DataGuard environment it makes a huge difference.

Per default, backups to Tape are always accessible and backups to disk always inaccessible. But what do you do in case you backup to NFS, and you want the backups to be usable on Primary and Standby?

Ok. Let’s to a quick demo.

Before we start, make sure that the oracle Unix user has the same unique id, and group id. If not, you end up with a big mess.

oracle@dbidg01:/home/oracle/ [DBIT122] id -a
uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),54323(sysbkp),54324(sysdg),54325(syskm),54326(oper)

The next import thing with NFS are the mount options. Oracle has documented it quite well which mount options are needed if you put Binaries, Datafiles or CRS Voting Disk and OCR on it.

Mount Options for Oracle files for RAC databases and Clusterware when used with NFS on NAS devices (Doc ID 359515.1)

For Linux x86-64bit it would be the following options for Datafiles

rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600

However, if your NFS mount is needed only for RMAN backup pieces, the actimeo=0 is not recommended. The actimeo=0 disables all NFS attribute caching, like acregmin, acregmax, acdirmin and acdirmax. And disabling attribute caching is suboptimal for RMAN backups. See also the following MOS note:

NFS options for 11.2.0.2 RMAN disk backups on Linux 64-bit (Doc ID 1117597.1)

I am using for that example NFS 4.1 and these are the mount options I use.

[root@dbidg01 etc]# mount | grep nfs4
dbidg03:/u99 on /u99 type nfs4 (rw,relatime,vers=4.1,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,namlen=255,hard,proto=tcp,port=0,timeo=600,retrans=2,sec=sys,clientaddr=192.168.56.201,local_lock=none,addr=192.168.56.203)

Last but not least, the Primary database has to be registered with the RMAN catalog. This is a very important point when working with RMAN in a DataGuard environment.

Ok. Let’s do the first backup on the Primary.

-- Primary

oracle@dbidg01:/home/oracle/ [DBIT122] rman target / catalog rman/rman@pdb1

Recovery Manager: Release 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Tue Jan 24 08:09:16 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DBIT122 (DBID=653953745)
connected to recovery catalog database


RMAN> list backup summary;

specification does not match any backup in the repository

RMAN> backup database plus archivelog tag 'DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY' format '/u99/backup/DBIT122/%U';


Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:45
current log archived
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=31 device type=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=36 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=68 RECID=386 STAMP=934081238
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:46
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=69 RECID=388 STAMP=934099691
input archived log thread=1 sequence=70 RECID=390 STAMP=934099729
input archived log thread=1 sequence=71 RECID=392 STAMP=934099785
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:46
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:47
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/2vrqqeqa_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=64 RECID=378 STAMP=934044533
input archived log thread=1 sequence=65 RECID=380 STAMP=934044555
input archived log thread=1 sequence=66 RECID=382 STAMP=934045153
input archived log thread=1 sequence=67 RECID=384 STAMP=934045183
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:47
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:48
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/2urqqeqa_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:48
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/30rqqeqb_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:48

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:48
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_system_d4fnthn8_.dbf
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_users_d4fnx3bd_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:49
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d4fnvx0w_.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d4fnx03r_.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_dbv_d7klp09z_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:49
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:52
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE1/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20170124T080948_d8fzfxqx_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T080948 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current control file in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:53
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:54
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE1/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20170124T080948_d8fzfxps_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T080948 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:05
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:54
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:54
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE1/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_ncnnf_TAG20170124T080948_d8fzg1yp_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T080948 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:55
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE1/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnsnf_TAG20170124T080948_d8fzg2yn_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T080948 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:55

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:56
current log archived
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=72 RECID=394 STAMP=934099796
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:56
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:57
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/35rqqeqk_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:09:57

RMAN>

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1981    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1982    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:48 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1983    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2003    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:51 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2004    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:53 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2005    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2006    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2025    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:56 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY

 

Ok. So what does my Standby know about this backup, which I have done on the Primary.

oracle@dbidg02:/u99/backup/DBIT122/ [DBIT122] rman target / catalog rman/rman@pdb1

Recovery Manager: Release 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Tue Jan 24 08:11:12 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DBIT122 (DBID=653953745)
connected to recovery catalog database

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';

specification does not match any backup in the repository

RMAN>

 

Nothing …

Ok. Let’s do now a backup on the Standby to NFS and check if it is visible on the Primary.

RMAN> backup database plus archivelog tag 'DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY' format '/u99/backup/DBIT122/%U';


Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:49
RMAN-06820: warning: failed to archive current log at primary database
cannot connect to remote database
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=271 device type=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=41 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=64 RECID=291 STAMP=934044533
input archived log thread=1 sequence=65 RECID=292 STAMP=934044555
input archived log thread=1 sequence=66 RECID=293 STAMP=934045153
input archived log thread=1 sequence=67 RECID=294 STAMP=934045183
input archived log thread=1 sequence=68 RECID=295 STAMP=934081238
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:50
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=69 RECID=296 STAMP=934099691
input archived log thread=1 sequence=70 RECID=297 STAMP=934099729
input archived log thread=1 sequence=71 RECID=298 STAMP=934099785
input archived log thread=1 sequence=72 RECID=299 STAMP=934099796
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:50
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:51
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/49rqqeu6_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:53
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/48rqqeu6_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:53

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:53
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_system_d4zc9yd3_.dbf
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_users_d4zccmnt_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:54
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d4zcbr8r_.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d4zccjnc_.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_dbv_d7klp0gg_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:11:54
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:09
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20170124T081153_d8fzktfn_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081153 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:09
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20170124T081153_d8fzktg7_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081153 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:09
including current control file in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:10
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:10
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnsnf_TAG20170124T081153_d8fzl9p7_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081153 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:11
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_ncnnf_TAG20170124T081153_d8fzlbqg_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081153 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:11

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:11
RMAN-06820: warning: failed to archive current log at primary database
cannot connect to remote database
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
specification does not match any archived log in the repository
backup cancelled because there are no files to backup
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:12:12

RMAN>

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
2065    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2066    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2084    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:01 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2085    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:02 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2086    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:09 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2087    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:10 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153

 

Now let’s check the Primary.

-- Primary

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1981    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1982    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:48 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1983    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2003    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:51 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2004    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:53 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2005    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2006    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2025    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:56 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY

 

No … nothing there from the Standby. Only the backups done on the Primary are visible.

Before we continue, let’s take a look at the following warning message that appeared on the standby database:

RMAN-06820: warning: failed to archive current log at primary database

In a DataGuard environment, it is not a good practise to logon to the standby with “rman target /”. You should use the
username/password@connectstring instead, or Wallets, if configured. To have a good backup on the Standby, Oracle first attempts to archive the current online redo log, and before the backup ends, it does another one. That’s why you see the RMAN-06820 twice. In case you are doing backups on the standby, always use “username/password@connectstring” or Wallets.

oracle@dbidg02:/u99/backup/DBIT122/ [DBIT122] rman target sys/Manager1@DBIT122_SITE2 catalog rman/rman@PDB1

Recovery Manager: Release 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Tue Jan 24 08:15:47 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DBIT122 (DBID=653953745)
connected to recovery catalog database

RMAN> backup database plus archivelog tag 'DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY' format '/u99/backup/DBIT122/%U';


Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:09
current log archived at primary database
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=271 device type=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=16 device type=DISK
skipping archived logs of thread 1 from sequence 64 to 72; already backed up
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=73 RECID=300 STAMP=934100169
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:11
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:12
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/4erqqf6b_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:12

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:12
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_system_d4zc9yd3_.dbf
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_users_d4zccmnt_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:13
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d4zcbr8r_.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d4zccjnc_.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE2/datafile/o1_mf_dbv_d7klp0gg_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:28
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20170124T081612_d8fzsx8o_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081612 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:28
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20170124T081612_d8fzsx94_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081612 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:28
including current control file in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:28
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:28
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_nnsnf_TAG20170124T081612_d8fztdkp_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081612 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:29
piece handle=/u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE2/backupset/2017_01_24/o1_mf_ncnnf_TAG20170124T081612_d8fztdl7_.bkp tag=TAG20170124T081612 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:29

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:29
current log archived at primary database
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=74 RECID=301 STAMP=934100189
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:31
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:32
piece handle=/u99/backup/DBIT122/4jrqqf6v_1_1 tag=DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:16:32

RMAN>


-- A message like the following popps up in the alert.log of the Primary, when Backup was done correctly.

ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG
2017-01-24T08:16:09.244238+01:00
LGWR: Standby redo logfile selected to archive thread 1 sequence 74
LGWR: Standby redo logfile selected for thread 1 sequence 74 for destination LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2
2017-01-24T08:16:09.264207+01:00
Thread 1 advanced to log sequence 74 (LGWR switch)
  Current log# 2 seq# 74 mem# 0: /u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_d4fotcnx_.log
  Current log# 2 seq# 74 mem# 1: /u03/fast_recovery_area/DBIT122_SITE1/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_d4fotkvy_.log
2017-01-24T08:16:09.268607+01:00
Archived Log entry 396 added for T-1.S-73 ID 0x27387e4f LAD:1
2017-01-24T08:16:29.636421+01:00
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG
2017-01-24T08:16:29.656594+01:00
LGWR: Standby redo logfile selected to archive thread 1 sequence 75
LGWR: Standby redo logfile selected for thread 1 sequence 75 for destination LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2
2017-01-24T08:16:29.665882+01:00
Thread 1 advanced to log sequence 75 (LGWR switch)

 

Nevertheless, we still can’t see the backups on Primary which were done on Standby. Now the accessible flag comes into play. If executed on Primary, you can see now the backups which were done on the Standby.

-- Primary

RMAN> set backup files for device type disk to accessible;

executing command: SET backup

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1981    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1982    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:48 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1983    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2003    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:51 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2004    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:53 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2005    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2006    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2025    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:56 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2065    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2066    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2084    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:01 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2085    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:02 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2086    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:09 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2087    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:10 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2137    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:11 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2148    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:17 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2149    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:21 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2150    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:28 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2151    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:28 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2169    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:31 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY

RMAN>

 

If executed on Standby, you can see now the backups which were done on the Primary.

 

-- Standby

RMAN> set backup files for device type disk to accessible;

executing command: SET backup

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1981    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1982    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:48 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1983    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2003    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:51 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2004    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:53 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2005    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2006    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2025    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:56 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2065    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2066    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2084    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:01 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2085    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:02 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2086    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:09 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2087    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:10 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2137    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:11 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2148    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:17 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2149    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:21 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2150    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:28 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2151    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:28 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2169    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:31 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY

RMAN>

If you don’t want to use the the accessible flag, but still want to see the backups on NFS from both sites you have another option. You can use the Oracle DISKSBT library and point it to the NFS directory.

RMAN> CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' PARMS  'SBT_LIBRARY=oracle.disksbt,ENV=(BACKUP_DIR=/u99/backup/DBIT122)';

new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' PARMS  'SBT_LIBRARY=oracle.disksbt,ENV=(BACKUP_DIR=/u99/backup/DBIT122)';
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored
starting full resync of recovery catalog
full resync complete

RMAN> CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO SBT_TAPE;

old RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK;
new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO 'SBT_TAPE';
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored
starting full resync of recovery catalog
full resync complete

RMAN> backup database plus archivelog tag 'DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY';


Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:16
current log archived
allocated channel: ORA_SBT_TAPE_1
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: SID=31 device type=SBT_TAPE
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: WARNING: Oracle Test Disk API
allocated channel: ORA_SBT_TAPE_2
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: SID=36 device type=SBT_TAPE
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: WARNING: Oracle Test Disk API
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=64 RECID=378 STAMP=934044533
input archived log thread=1 sequence=65 RECID=380 STAMP=934044555
input archived log thread=1 sequence=66 RECID=382 STAMP=934045153
input archived log thread=1 sequence=67 RECID=384 STAMP=934045183
input archived log thread=1 sequence=68 RECID=386 STAMP=934081238
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:16
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=69 RECID=388 STAMP=934099691
input archived log thread=1 sequence=70 RECID=390 STAMP=934099729
input archived log thread=1 sequence=71 RECID=392 STAMP=934099785
input archived log thread=1 sequence=72 RECID=394 STAMP=934099796
input archived log thread=1 sequence=73 RECID=396 STAMP=934100169
input archived log thread=1 sequence=74 RECID=398 STAMP=934100189
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:16
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:17
piece handle=37rqqfho_1_1 tag=DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=75 RECID=400 STAMP=934100536
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:18
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:19
piece handle=38rqqfhq_1_1 tag=DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:25
piece handle=36rqqfho_1_1 tag=DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:09
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:25

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:25
using channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1
using channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_system_d4fnthn8_.dbf
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_users_d4fnx3bd_.dbf
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:25
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_d4fnvx0w_.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_d4fnx03r_.dbf
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u02/oradata/DBIT122_SITE1/datafile/o1_mf_dbv_d7klp09z_.dbf
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:25
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:51
piece handle=39rqqfi1_1_1 tag=TAG20170124T082225 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:26
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:51
piece handle=3arqqfi1_1_1 tag=TAG20170124T082225 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:26
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:51
including current control file in backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:52
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:52
piece handle=3crqqfir_1_1 tag=TAG20170124T082225 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:53
piece handle=3brqqfir_1_1 tag=TAG20170124T082225 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:53

Starting backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:53
current log archived
using channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1
using channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_2
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=76 RECID=402 STAMP=934100573
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: starting piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:54
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: finished piece 1 at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:55
piece handle=3drqqfiu_1_1 tag=DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 8.1.3.0
channel ORA_SBT_TAPE_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-JAN-2017 08:22:55

Now backups on NFS are accessible without the accessible flag. It’s not needed for backups to SBT_TAPE. It’s default. :-)

RMAN> list backup summary completed after 'sysdate -1';


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time      #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- -------------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
1981    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1982    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:48 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
1983    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:46 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2003    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:51 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2004    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:53 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2005    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2006    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:54 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T080948
2025    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:09:56 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2065    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2066    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:11:50 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2084    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:01 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2085    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:02 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2086    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:09 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2087    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:12:10 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081153
2137    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:11 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2148    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:17 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2149    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:21 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2150    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:28 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2151    B  F  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:28 1       1       NO         TAG20170124T081612
2169    B  A  A DISK        24-JAN-2017 08:16:31 1       1       NO         DBI_BACKUP_ON_STANDBY
2312    B  A  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:17 1       1       YES        DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2313    B  A  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:18 1       1       YES        DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2314    B  A  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:20 1       1       YES        DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY
2345    B  F  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:44 1       1       YES        TAG20170124T082225
2346    B  F  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:46 1       1       YES        TAG20170124T082225
2347    B  F  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:51 1       1       YES        TAG20170124T082225
2348    B  F  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:52 1       1       YES        TAG20170124T082225
2377    B  A  A SBT_TAPE    24-JAN-2017 08:22:54 1       1       YES        DBI_SBT_TAPE_BACKUP_ON_PRIMARY

RMAN>

 

Conclusion

Backups to NFS are perfectly possible, however, in a DataGuard environment it is very useful to see the backups on the primary and standby. You never know which host might fail, so it is good to have all options.

 

Cet article Oracle 12cR2 – DataGuard and Backups to NFS est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

vagrant up – get your Oracle infrastructure up an running

Thu, 2017-01-19 10:55

By using Vagrant to manage your Virtual Machines and Ansible for configuration management and provisioning
you can easily automate the setup of your whole test environment in a standardized way.

If you have never heard about Ansible and Vagrant I try to give you an idea with the following very short  summary. There is a lot of good information available about Ansible and Vagrant.
Please check the provided links at the end of this blog for further information.

What is Vagrant ?

Vagrant is an open source tool on top of some virtualization solution like Oracle VirtualBox. It can automate the creation of VM’s. Additionally vagrant supports provisioning with scripts or with tools like Ansible, Puppet or Chef.
You can download a lot of useful  boxes from here: https://atlas.hashicorp.com/boxes/search

 What is Ansible ?

Ansible is an open source automation platform.
It is a radically simple IT automation engine designed for multi-tier deployments. [https://www.ansible.com/how-ansible-works]

Ansible just uses ssh and does not require agents or other software installed on the target nodes. You simply put your steps into an Ansible playbook, which is an easy to read text-file written in YAML syntax. Your playbook will simply look like documented steps.
Ansible will run the listed tasks described in the playbook on the target servers by invoking Ansible Modules.

Here is a simple example task from a playbook which will add a directory on a server. It uses the Ansible module “file”
- name: add home directory
file:
path: /home/myuser
state: directory

Ansible is quite well known to build up whole test environments including databases like mysql which are easy to install with simple tar balls or rpm files.

Unfortunately in the community of Oracle DBA’s usually Ansible is not on the radar despite there are already good Ansible playbooks available which proofed that you can also use Ansible to provision your whole Oracle Test Environment even with Oracle Real Application Cluster:
https://github.com/racattack/racattack-ansible-oracle

https://github.com/cvezalis/oracledb-ansible

Starting from these examples and adapting them for your needs you will experience how quick you will be able to automate your Oracle installations. This is what I did an want to show you here. Please keep in mind that this example is optimized for a fast installation and should not be used as it is for a productive system.

What you’ll get
In this blog I give you an example how to build an Oracle infrastructure from scratch containing
two virtual servers, installed and configured with CentOS 7.2 ,
each hosting an Oracle DB (12.1.0.2).
Example_Ansible

  • Step ONE – What you need to prepare once to run this example
      1) the Ansible Playbook and Vagrant configuration for this example
      you can download everything from the git repository. All files are simple text files.
      https://github.com/nkadbi/oracle-db-12c-vagrant-ansible
      2) the Oracle 12.1.0.2 binaries
      the Oracle binaries are not included in the download. You have to provide them.
      Please copy the Oracle software zip files into the directory oracle-db-12c-vagrant-ansible/
      ./linuxamd64_12102_database_1of2.zip
      ./linuxamd64_12102_database_2of2.zip

      3) your Linux host or laptop
      with Network Connection,Oracle VirtualBox , Vagrant and Ansible installed.
      This can be done with your linux package manager.
      You will need Ansible version 2.1.1.0 or higher for this example!
      Please check http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/intro_installation.html for installation details.
      sudo yum install ansible
      You can find the Oracle VirtualBox Download and Installation Guide here:
      https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Linux_Downloads
      Download Vagrant with version 1.8.5 or higher from
      https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html
      Also install the vagrant hostmanager plugin:
      $ vagrant plugin install vagrant-hostmanager
  • Step TWO – Run it
      Now you are ready to start the whole setup which will create two virtual servers and oracle databases.
      On my laptop with SSD disks and 16 GB RAM this takes about 20 minutes.
      To run this example you will need minimal 8 GB RAM and 10G free disk space
      Go to the directory where you have downloaded this example. Everything will be started from here.
      cd oracle-db-12c-vagrant-ansible
      vagrant up
  • Of cause you do not want to start this without knowing what is going on.
    I will go a little bit into details therefore next week ….

    Further information about Ansible:
    There will be some Introduction Webinars for Ansible coming soon
    https://www.ansible.com/webinars-training

    you can find more examples at:
    http://galaxy.ansible.com
    https://github.com/ansible/ansible-examples
    https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/ansible-project
    If you want to read a book I can recommend this:
    Ansible: Up and Running
    Print ISBN: 978-1-4919-1532-5
    Ebook ISBN: 978-1-4919-1529-5

    https://www.ansible.com/ebooks

     

    Cet article vagrant up – get your Oracle infrastructure up an running est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    From PostgreSQL 9.1.8 to PostgreSQL 9.5.5 including a standby database with minimal downtime

    Thu, 2017-01-19 03:29

    As you might know PostgreSQL 9.1 is out of support since last September. But, no surprise, there are still plenty of PostgreSQL 9.1 instances out there which need to be upgraded to a supported release. At one of our customers we exactly have this situation: The production environment is running on PostgreSQL 9.1.8 and needs to be upgraded to a recent release (9.5.5 in this case). To make life a little bit more fun there are more constraints: This is a PostgreSQL streaming replication configuration, so there is a standby database involved. Allowed downtime is 30 minutes and there is space pressure on the current systems and the current systems need to be reused. In this post we’ll look at how you can do the upgrade with minimal downtime (without using logical replication).

    First, lets build the test environment. We need two systems, one for the master instance (192.168.22.32) and one for the standby (192.168.22.32). On both of these system we’ll need PostgreSQL 9.1.8 installed, so:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ wget https://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.1.8/postgresql-9.1.8.tar.bz2
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ tar -axf postgresql-9.1.8.tar.bz2
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ cd postgresql-9.1.8/
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ PGHOME=/u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ SEGSIZE=2
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ BLOCKSIZE=8
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ WALSEGSIZE=16
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ ./configure --prefix=${PGHOME} \
                                                       --exec-prefix=${PGHOME} \
                                                       --bindir=${PGHOME}/bin \
                                                       --libdir=${PGHOME}/lib \
                                                       --sysconfdir=${PGHOME}/etc \
                                                       --includedir=${PGHOME}/include \
                                                       --datarootdir=${PGHOME}/share \
                                                       --datadir=${PGHOME}/share \
                                                       --with-pgport=5432 \
                                                       --with-perl \
                                                       --with-python \
                                                       --with-tcl \
                                                       --with-openssl \
                                                       --with-pam \
                                                       --with-ldap \
                                                       --with-libxml \
                                                       --with-libxslt \
                                                       --with-segsize=${SEGSIZE} \
                                                       --with-blocksize=${BLOCKSIZE} \
                                                       --with-wal-segsize=${WALSEGSIZE}
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ make world
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ make install
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8$ cd contrib
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8/contrib$ make install
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.1.8/contrib$ cd ../..
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ rm -rf postgresql-9.1.8*
    

    Once this is available on both nodes we can initialize our master instance:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ /u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8/bin/initdb -D /u02/pgdata/testmig -X /u03/pgdata/testmig
    The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
    This user must also own the server process.
    
    The database cluster will be initialized with locale en_US.UTF-8.
    The default database encoding has accordingly been set to UTF8.
    The default text search configuration will be set to "english".
    
    creating directory /u02/pgdata/testmig ... ok
    creating directory /u03/pgdata/testmig ... ok
    creating subdirectories ... ok
    selecting default max_connections ... 100
    selecting default shared_buffers ... 24MB
    creating configuration files ... ok
    creating template1 database in /u02/pgdata/testmig/base/1 ... ok
    initializing pg_authid ... ok
    initializing dependencies ... ok
    creating system views ... ok
    loading system objects' descriptions ... ok
    creating collations ... ok
    creating conversions ... ok
    creating dictionaries ... ok
    setting privileges on built-in objects ... ok
    creating information schema ... ok
    loading PL/pgSQL server-side language ... ok
    vacuuming database template1 ... ok
    copying template1 to template0 ... ok
    copying template1 to postgres ... ok
    
    WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
    You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the -A option the
    next time you run initdb.
    
    Success. You can now start the database server using:
    
        /u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8/bin/postgres -D /u02/pgdata/testmig
    or
        /u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8/bin/pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig -l logfile start
    

    (I am assuming that password less ssh authentication is already setup between the nodes for the following). Setup authentication:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ echo "host    replication     postgres       192.168.22.32/32        trust" >> /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ echo "host    replication     postgres       192.168.22.33/32        trust" >> /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf
    

    Adjust the parameters:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ sed -i 's/#wal_level = minimal/wal_level = hot_standby/g' /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ sed -i 's/#max_wal_senders = 0/max_wal_senders = 10/g' /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ sed -i 's/#wal_keep_segments = 0/wal_keep_segments = 100/g' /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ sed -i "s/#listen_addresses = 'localhost'/listen_addresses = '*'/g" /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ sed -i 's/#logging_collector = off/#logging_collector = on/g' /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf    
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ mkdir /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_log    
    

    Start and stop the instance:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ export PATH=/u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8/bin/:$PATH
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig/ start -l /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_log/log.log
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig/ stop
    

    Ready to setup the standby:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cd /u02    
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ rsync -r pgdata/ 192.168.22.33:/u02/pgdata
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ cd /u03
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ rsync -r pgdata/ 192.168.22.33:/u03/pgdata
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "ln -s /u03/pgdata/testmig/ /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_xlog"
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ scp /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf 192.168.22.33:/u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "echo \"standby_mode = on\" >> /u02/pgdata/testmig/recovery.conf"
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "echo \"primary_conninfo = 'host=192.168.22.32 port=5432 user=postgres'\" >> /u02/pgdata/testmig/recovery.conf"
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "echo \"trigger_file = '/u02/pgdata/testmig/up_slave'\" >> /u02/pgdata/testmig/recovery.conf"
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "sed -i 's/#hot_standby = off/hot_standby = on/g' /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf"
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "sed -i 's/#logging_collector = off/#logging_collector = on/g' /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf"
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ ssh 192.168.22.33 "mkdir -p /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_log"
    

    Start the master:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig/ start -l /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_log/log.log
    

    Start the standby:

    # standby side
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ export PATH=/u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8/bin/:$PATH
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig/ start -l /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_log/log.log
    

    … and if everything went fine we should see this in the log of the standby instance:

    LOG: database system was shut down at 2017-01-18 07:28:02 CET
    LOG: entering standby mode
    LOG: consistent recovery state reached at 0/16BCBB0
    LOG: database system is ready to accept read only connections
    LOG: record with zero length at 0/16BCBB0
    LOG: streaming replication successfully connected to primary

    A quick check on the standby to confirm that it is operating in recovery mode:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ psql
    psql (9.1.8)
    Type "help" for help.
    
    postgres=# select pg_is_in_recovery();
     pg_is_in_recovery 
    -------------------
     t
    (1 row)
    

    In the case we had at the customer there was the adminpack extension installed in the postgres database and the pg_trgm and pg_buffercache extension in the application database, so lets do the same here on the master (this will get replicated to the standby automatically):

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ psql
    psql (9.1.8)
    Type "help" for help.
    
    postgres=# create extension adminpack;
    CREATE EXTENSION
    postgres=# create database testmig;
    CREATE DATABASE
    postgres=# \c testmig
    You are now connected to database "testmig" as user "postgres".
    testmig=# create extension pg_trgm;
    CREATE EXTENSION
    testmig=# create extension pg_buffercache;
    CREATE EXTENSION
    testmig=# 
    

    Quickly confirm that it is there on the standby:

    postgres=# \dx
                            List of installed extensions
       Name    | Version |   Schema   |               Description               
    -----------+---------+------------+-----------------------------------------
     adminpack | 1.0     | pg_catalog | administrative functions for PostgreSQL
     plpgsql   | 1.0     | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
    (2 rows)
    
    postgres=# \c testmig
    You are now connected to database "testmig" as user "postgres".
    testmig=# \dx
                                           List of installed extensions
          Name      | Version |   Schema   |                            Description                            
    ----------------+---------+------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------
     pg_buffercache | 1.0     | public     | examine the shared buffer cache
     pg_trgm        | 1.0     | public     | text similarity measurement and index searching based on trigrams
     plpgsql        | 1.0     | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
    (3 rows)
    

    Finally, some sample data generated with pgbench:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pgbench -i testmig -s 10
    

    Should be there on the standby as well:

    testmig=# select count(*) from pgbench_accounts;
     count  
    --------
    1000000
    (1 row)
    testmig=# 
    

    This is, more or less, the situation to start from. How can we upgrade this to PostgreSQL 9.5.5 with minimal downtime and without using logical replication? Obviously we’ll need to get PostgreSQL 9.5.5 installed on both systems before we can do anything further, so:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ wget https://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.5.5/postgresql-9.5.5.tar.bz2
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ tar -axf postgresql-9.5.5.tar.bz2 
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ cd postgresql-9.5.5/
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ PGHOME=/u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ PGHOME=/u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ SEGSIZE=2
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ BLOCKSIZE=8
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ WALSEGSIZE=16
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ ./configure --prefix=${PGHOME} \
                                                       --exec-prefix=${PGHOME} \
                                                       --bindir=${PGHOME}/bin \
                                                       --libdir=${PGHOME}/lib \
                                                       --sysconfdir=${PGHOME}/etc \
                                                       --includedir=${PGHOME}/include \
                                                       --datarootdir=${PGHOME}/share \
                                                       --datadir=${PGHOME}/share \
                                                       --with-pgport=5432 \
                                                       --with-perl \
                                                       --with-python \
                                                       --with-tcl \
                                                       --with-openssl \
                                                       --with-pam \
                                                       --with-ldap \
                                                       --with-libxml \
                                                       --with-libxslt \
                                                       --with-segsize=${SEGSIZE} \
                                                       --with-blocksize=${BLOCKSIZE} \
                                                       --with-wal-segsize=${WALSEGSIZE}
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ make world
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ make install
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5$ cd contrib
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5/contrib$ make install
    postgres@debian6pg:~/postgresql-9.5.5/contrib$ cd ../..
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ rm -rf postgresql-9.5.5*
    

    Then we need a new cluster initialized with the new version of PostgreSQL on the master:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ /u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/initdb -D /u02/pgdata/testmig95/ -X /u03/pgdata/testmig95/ 
    The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
    This user must also own the server process.
    
    The database cluster will be initialized with locale "en_US.UTF-8".
    The default database encoding has accordingly been set to "UTF8".
    The default text search configuration will be set to "english".
    
    Data page checksums are disabled.
    
    creating directory /u02/pgdata/testmig95 ... ok
    creating directory /u03/pgdata/testmig95 ... ok
    creating subdirectories ... ok
    selecting default max_connections ... 100
    selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
    selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
    creating configuration files ... ok
    creating template1 database in /u02/pgdata/testmig95/base/1 ... ok
    initializing pg_authid ... ok
    initializing dependencies ... ok
    creating system views ... ok
    loading system objects' descriptions ... ok
    creating collations ... ok
    creating conversions ... ok
    creating dictionaries ... ok
    setting privileges on built-in objects ... ok
    creating information schema ... ok
    loading PL/pgSQL server-side language ... ok
    vacuuming database template1 ... ok
    copying template1 to template0 ... ok
    copying template1 to postgres ... ok
    syncing data to disk ... ok
    
    WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
    You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or
    --auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb.
    
    Success. You can now start the database server using:
    
        /u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig95/ -l logfile start
    

    Shutdown the master and record the latest checkpoint location (This is where your downtime starts):

    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig stop -m fast
    LOG:  received fast shutdown request
    LOG:  aborting any active transactions
    LOG:  autovacuum launcher shutting down
    LOG:  shutting down
    waiting for server to shut down....LOG:  database system is shut down
     done
    server stopped
    
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02/pgdata/testmig$ pg_controldata  | grep "Latest checkpoint location"
    Latest checkpoint location:           0/C619840
    

    Shutdown the slave and compare the last checkpoint:

    # slave side
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02/pgdata/testmig$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig/ stop -m fast
    waiting for server to shut down.... done
    server stopped
    
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02/pgdata/testmig$ pg_controldata  | grep "Latest checkpoint location"
    Latest checkpoint location:           0/C619840
    

    As both checkpoint locations match we are sure that the standby applied all changes and there is not difference in data.

    Save your configuration files:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf /var/tmp 
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf /var/tmp
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf /var/tmp 
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf /var/tmp
    

    Run pg_upgrade on the master with link (-k) mode (if you have many cores on your box you can use the “-j” option to parallelize pg_upgrade):

    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ export PGDATAOLD=/u02/pgdata/testmig/
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ export PGDATANEW=/u02/pgdata/testmig95/
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ export PGBINOLD=/u01/app/postgres/product/91/db_8/bin/
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ export PGBINNEW=/u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/
    
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ /u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/pg_upgrade -k 
    

    (Usually you’d do a “-c” check run before doing the real upgrade). When using link mode the files get hard-linked instead of copied which is much faster and saves disk space. The downside is that you can not revert to the old cluster in case anything goes wrong. When it goes fine, it looks like this:

    
    Performing Consistency Checks
    -----------------------------
    Checking cluster versions                                   ok
    Checking database user is the install user                  ok
    Checking database connection settings                       ok
    Checking for prepared transactions                          ok
    Checking for reg* system OID user data types                ok
    Checking for contrib/isn with bigint-passing mismatch       ok
    Checking for invalid "line" user columns                    ok
    Creating dump of global objects                             ok
    Creating dump of database schemas
                                                                ok
    Checking for presence of required libraries                 ok
    Checking database user is the install user                  ok
    Checking for prepared transactions                          ok
    
    If pg_upgrade fails after this point, you must re-initdb the
    new cluster before continuing.
    
    Performing Upgrade
    ------------------
    Analyzing all rows in the new cluster                       ok
    Freezing all rows on the new cluster                        ok
    Deleting files from new pg_clog                             ok
    Copying old pg_clog to new server                           ok
    Setting next transaction ID and epoch for new cluster       ok
    Deleting files from new pg_multixact/offsets                ok
    Setting oldest multixact ID on new cluster                  ok
    Resetting WAL archives                                      ok
    Setting frozenxid and minmxid counters in new cluster       ok
    Restoring global objects in the new cluster                 ok
    Restoring database schemas in the new cluster
                                                                ok
    Setting minmxid counter in new cluster                      ok
    Adding ".old" suffix to old global/pg_control               ok
    
    If you want to start the old cluster, you will need to remove
    the ".old" suffix from /u02/pgdata/testmig/global/pg_control.old.
    Because "link" mode was used, the old cluster cannot be safely
    started once the new cluster has been started.
    
    Linking user relation files
                                                                ok
    Setting next OID for new cluster                            ok
    Sync data directory to disk                                 ok
    Creating script to analyze new cluster                      ok
    Creating script to delete old cluster                       ok
    
    Upgrade Complete
    ----------------
    Optimizer statistics are not transferred by pg_upgrade so,
    once you start the new server, consider running:
        ./analyze_new_cluster.sh
    
    Running this script will delete the old cluster's data files:
        ./delete_old_cluster.sh
    

    Restore the configuration files:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ mkdir -p /u02/pgdata/testmig95/pg_log
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cp /var/tmp/postgresql.conf /u02/pgdata/testmig95/postgresql.conf  
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cp /var/tmp/pg_hba.conf /u02/pgdata/testmig95/pg_hba.conf 
    

    Start and stop the upgraded instance and check that everything is fine in the log file:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ /u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig95/ -l /u02/pgdata/testmig95/pg_log/log.log start    
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ /u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig95/ stop   
    

    You could already keep your cluster running now and your downtime is completed when you plan to re-build the standby. When you want to do the standby now then: save the configuration files:

    # standby side
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/postgresql.conf /var/tmp
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/pg_hba.conf /var/tmp
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cp /u02/pgdata/testmig/recovery.conf /var/tmp
    

    Sync the directories from the master to the standby (this will be very fast because it will create hard links on the standby server instead of copying the user files):

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cd /u02/pgdata   
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ rsync --archive --delete --hard-links --size-only testmig testmig95 192.168.22.33:/u02/pgdata
    postgres@debian6pg:/u02$ cd /u03
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ rsync -r pgdata/testmig95 192.168.22.33:/u03/pgdata/testmig95
    

    Restore the configuration files on the standby:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cp /var/tmp/postgresql.conf /u02/pgdata/testmig95/postgresql.conf 
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cp /var/tmp/pg_hba.conf /u02/pgdata/testmig95/pg_hba.conf
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ cp /var/tmp/recovery.conf /u02/pgdata/testmig95/recovery.conf
    

    Start the master:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ export PATH=/u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin:$PATH
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig95/ start -l /u02/pgdata/testmig95/pg_log/log.log
    

    Start the standby:

    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ export PATH=/u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin:$PATH
    postgres@debian6pg:/u03$ pg_ctl -D /u02/pgdata/testmig95/ start -l /u02/pgdata/testmig95/pg_log/log.log
    

    Check the standby’s logfile:

    
    LOG:  database system was shut down at 2017-01-19 07:51:24 GMT
    LOG:  creating missing WAL directory "pg_xlog/archive_status"
    LOG:  entering standby mode
    LOG:  started streaming WAL from primary at 0/E000000 on timeline 1
    LOG:  consistent recovery state reached at 0/E024D38
    LOG:  redo starts at 0/E024D38
    LOG:  database system is ready to accept read only connections
    

    Do some checks to see that everything is there on the standby:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ psql
    psql (9.5.5)
    Type "help" for help.
    
    postgres=# select pg_is_in_recovery();
     pg_is_in_recovery 
    -------------------
     t
    (1 row)
    
    postgres=# \dx
                            List of installed extensions
       Name    | Version |   Schema   |               Description               
    -----------+---------+------------+-----------------------------------------
     adminpack | 1.0     | pg_catalog | administrative functions for PostgreSQL
     plpgsql   | 1.0     | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
    (2 rows)
    
    postgres=# \c testmig
    You are now connected to database "testmig" as user "postgres".
    testmig=# \dx
                                           List of installed extensions
          Name      | Version |   Schema   |                            Description                            
    ----------------+---------+------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------
     pg_buffercache | 1.0     | public     | examine the shared buffer cache
     pg_trgm        | 1.0     | public     | text similarity measurement and index searching based on trigrams
     plpgsql        | 1.0     | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
    (3 rows)
    
    testmig=# \d
                  List of relations
     Schema |       Name       | Type  |  Owner   
    --------+------------------+-------+----------
     public | pg_buffercache   | view  | postgres
     public | pgbench_accounts | table | postgres
     public | pgbench_branches | table | postgres
     public | pgbench_history  | table | postgres
     public | pgbench_tellers  | table | postgres
    (5 rows)
    
    testmig=# select count(*) from pgbench_accounts;
      count  
    ---------
     1000000
    (1 row)
    

    Run the analyze_new_cluster.sh on the master:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ ./analyze_new_cluster.sh
    This script will generate minimal optimizer statistics rapidly
    so your system is usable, and then gather statistics twice more
    with increasing accuracy.  When it is done, your system will
    have the default level of optimizer statistics.
    
    If you have used ALTER TABLE to modify the statistics target for
    any tables, you might want to remove them and restore them after
    running this script because they will delay fast statistics generation.
    
    If you would like default statistics as quickly as possible, cancel
    this script and run:
        "/u01/app/postgres/product/95/db_5/bin/vacuumdb" --all --analyze-only
    
    vacuumdb: processing database "postgres": Generating minimal optimizer statistics (1 target)
    vacuumdb: processing database "template1": Generating minimal optimizer statistics (1 target)
    vacuumdb: processing database "testmig": Generating minimal optimizer statistics (1 target)
    vacuumdb: processing database "postgres": Generating medium optimizer statistics (10 targets)
    vacuumdb: processing database "template1": Generating medium optimizer statistics (10 targets)
    vacuumdb: processing database "testmig": Generating medium optimizer statistics (10 targets)
    vacuumdb: processing database "postgres": Generating default (full) optimizer statistics
    vacuumdb: processing database "template1": Generating default (full) optimizer statistics
    vacuumdb: processing database "testmig": Generating default (full) optimizer statistics
    

    Now you can delete the old cluster on the master:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ postgres@debian6pg:~$ ./delete_old_cluster.sh
    

    Then either copy the script to the standby or delete the old standby the manual way:

    postgres@debian6pg:~$ rm -rf /u02/pgdata/testmig
    postgres@debian6pg:~$ rm -rf /u03/pgdata/testmig
    

    Done. Hope this helps …

     

    Cet article From PostgreSQL 9.1.8 to PostgreSQL 9.5.5 including a standby database with minimal downtime est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    Introducing high-availability with SQL Server on Linux

    Sun, 2017-01-15 11:39

    A couple of months ago, I did my first installation of SQL Server on Linux. I wrote about it in this blog post. So now it’s time to start the new year by talking about high availability on Linux with SQL Server vNext. Running standalone instances will be suitable for scenarios but I guess introducing high-availability with critical environments still remain mandatory.Currently, the CTP1 supports installing a SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance on the top of RHEL HA Add-on based on Pacemaker. This is a good start although I hope to see also availability groups in the future (maybe a future CTP version). In this blog post I will not go into details of my installation process because some steps will certainly change over the time but I would like to share my notes (or feelings) about this new way to achieve high availability with SQL Server on Linux world.

    I performed the installation by using the same infrastructure exposed on the Microsoft documentation. As usual, my environment is fully virtualized with Hyper-V.

     

    blog 114 - 1 - sql linux fci architecture

    So, the first step consisted in installing 3 virtual machines based on a CentOS 7 distribution (the Microsoft documentation is intended to RHEL 7 but CentOS 7 is perfectly suitable in our case). The first two ones concerned the cluster and SQL Server. I performed the same installation process to install SQL Server on Linux. No change here. The third one concerned the NFS server. So let’s show my storage configuration:

    [mikedavem@nfs ~]$ sudo fdisk -l | grep -i sd
    Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes, 41943040 sectors
    /dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
    /dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM
    Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
    /dev/sdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux
    Disk /dev/sdc: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
    /dev/sdc1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux

     

    The corresponding partition /dev/sdb1 (ext4 formatted) need to be mounted automatically by the system and will be used as a shared storage by the NFS server afterwards.

    [mikedavem@nfs ~]$ cat /etc/fstab
    #
    # /etc/fstab
    # Created by anaconda on Thu Jan 12 21:46:34 2017
    #
    …
    
    /dev/mapper/cl-root     /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
    UUID=e4f5fc0b-1fd4-4e18-b655-a76b87778b73 /boot                   xfs     defaults        0 0
    /dev/mapper/cl-swap     swap                    swap    defaults        0 0
    /dev/sdb1       /mnt/sql_data_nfs       ext4    auto,user,rw    0 0
    /dev/sdc1       /mnt/sql_log_nfs        ext4    auto,user,rw    0 0

     

    Then my NFS server will expose the shared directory /mnt/sql_data_nfs to the cluster layer.

    [mikedavem@nfs ~]$ cat /etc/exports
    /mnt/sql_data_nfs 192.168.5.0/24(rw,sync,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)
    /mnt/sql_log_nfs  192.168.5.0/24(rw,sync,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)

     

    We will focus only on the directory /mnt/sql_data_nfs in this case.

    [mikedavem@nfs ~]$ showmount -e
    Export list for nfs.dbi-services.com:
    /mnt/sql_log_nfs  192.168.5.0/24
    /mnt/sql_data_nfs 192.168.5.0/24

     

    That’s it. My directory is ready to be used by my SQL Server cluster nodes as shared storage for my databases. Let’s continue with the second step. We need to install the cluster underlying infrastructure which includes components as Pacemaker (the resource manager) and Corosync (Communication layer between cluster nodes).

    blog 114 - 2 - packemaker architecture

                                            From Microsoft documentation

    By reading the Pacemaker documentation on the web, I could find out similar concepts we may have with Microsoft and the Windows Failover Cluster feature. After facing some configuration issues, here my final configuration.

    • Two cluster nodes (linux01.dbi-services.test / linux02.dbi-services.test)
    • Two resources that concern my SQL Server FCI (sqllinuxfci resource + virtualip resource)
    [mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs status
    
    Cluster name: linux_cluster
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: linux01.dbi-services.test (version 1.1.15-11.el7_3.2-e174ec8) - partition with quorum
    
    Last updated: Sat Jan 14 19:53:55 2017          Last change: Sat Jan 14 17:28:36 2017 
    by root via crm_resource on linux01.dbi-services.test
    
    2 nodes and 2 resources configured
    
    Online: [ linux01.dbi-services.test linux02.dbi-services.test ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
     sqllinuxfci    (ocf::sql:fci): Started linux02.dbi-services.test
     virtualip      (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started linux02.dbi-services.test
    
    ...
    
    Daemon Status:
      corosync: active/enabled
      pacemaker: active/enabled
      pcsd: active/enabled

     

    As said previously, I faced some issues during the cluster installation process. The first one concerned a typo in the Microsoft documentation (at least the command did not work in my case). I was not able to create my SQL Server resource after installing the mssql-server-ha package. Indeed, according to Microsoft documentation we need to create a SQL Server resource based on the ocf:mssql:fci resource agent. However, after some investigations, I was able to figure out that this definition doesn’t exist according to the current OCF resource agent folder hierarchy (see below). In my case, I had to change the definition by ocf:sql:fci

    [mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ ls -l /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/
    
    total 16
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 12 19:31 heartbeat
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 12 19:31 openstack
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 12 19:31 pacemaker
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Jan 14 10:55 sql
    
    [mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ ls -l /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/sql/
    total 20
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  3473 Jan 14 10:58 cfg
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 15979 Dec 16 02:09 fci

     

    Let’s say it was also a good opportunity to understand what an OCF resource agent is. First coming from the Microsoft world, I figured out quickly the OCF resource agents correspond in fact to what we call the Windows Failover Cluster DLL resources. In addition, according to linux documentation, I noticed similar concepts like functions and entry points that a Windows resource DLL is expected to implement. Very interesting!

    The second issue concerned a strange behavior when the failover of my SQL Server resource occurred. I first noticed the following messages:

    Failed Actions:
    * sqllinuxfci_start_0 on linux02.dbi-services.test ‘unknown error’ (1): call=16, status=complete, exitreason=’SQL server crashed during startup.’,
        last-rc-change=’Sat Jan 14 17:35:30 2017′, queued=0ms, exec=34325ms

    Then I moved on the SQL Server error log to try to find out some clues about this issue (SQL Server error log is always your friend in this case)

    [mikedavem@linux01 sql]$ sudo cat /var/opt/mssql/log/errorlog
    
    
    2017-01-14 14:38:55.50 spid5s      Error: 17204, Severity: 16, State: 1.
    2017-01-14 14:38:55.50 spid5s      FCB::Open failed: Could not open file C:\var\opt\mssql\data\mastlog.ldf for file number 2.  OS error: 2(The system cannot find the file specified.).
    2017-01-14 14:38:55.50 spid5s      Error: 5120, Severity: 16, State: 101.
    2017-01-14 14:38:55.50 spid5s      Unable to open the physical file "C:\var\opt\mssql\data\mastlog.ldf". Operating system error 2: "2(The system cannot find the file specified.)".
    …

    That’s the point. My SQL Server engine was not able to open the master database because it can’t find the specified path. As an apart, you may notice the path used by SQL Server in the error message. A Windows fashion path which includes a drive letter! Well, very surprising but I’m sure it will be changed in the near future. For the purpose of my tests, I had no choice to change the folder permission to 777 to expect my SQL Server instance starting well. One point to investigate of course because it will not meet the security policy rules in production environment.

    The third one concerned IP and hostname resolution. I had to add my cluster IP and hostnames related information into the /etc/hosts file on each cluster node to get it to resolve correctly as follows:

    [mikedavem@linux01 sql]$ cat /etc/hosts
    
    127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
    ::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
    192.168.5.17    linux01.dbi-services.test linux01
    192.168.5.18    linux02.dbi-services.test linux02
    192.168.5.19    sqllinuxfci.dbi-services.test sqllinuxfci

     

    Finally, after fixing the previous issues, I performed some failover tests (move resources and bring offline a cluster node as well) that ran successfully.

    • Move resource
    [mikedavem@linux01 sql]$ sudo pcs resource move sqllinuxfci linux01.dbi-services.test
    
    [mikedavem@linux01 sql]$ sudo pcs status
    
    …
    2 nodes and 2 resources configured
    
    Online: [ linux01.dbi-services.test linux02.dbi-services.test ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
     sqllinuxfci    (ocf::sql:fci): Started linux01.dbi-services.test
     virtualip      (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started linux01.dbi-services.test

     

    • Simulate failure node LINUX02.dbi-services.test
    [mikedavem@linux01 ~]$ sudo pcs status
    
    Cluster name: linux_cluster
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: linux01.dbi-services.test (version 1.1.15-11.el7_3.2-e174ec8) - part                                                                                        ition with quorum
    Last updated: Sun Jan 15 10:59:14 2017          Last change: Sun Jan 15 10:56:54                                                                                         2017 by root via crm_resource on linux01.dbi-services.test
    
    2 nodes and 2 resources configured
    
    Online: [ linux01.dbi-services.test ]
    OFFLINE: [ linux02.dbi-services.test ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
     sqllinuxfci    (ocf::sql:fci): Started linux01.dbi-services.test
     virtualip      (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started linux01.dbi-services.tes                                                                                        t
    
    Daemon Status:
      corosync: active/enabled
      pacemaker: active/enabled
      pcsd: active/enabled

     

    Another “bug” I noticed is that the SERVERPROPERTY() function output does not show correctly the my FCI name. Probably a mistake which will be resolved in the next CTPs. Be patient …

    blog 114 - 3 - serverproperty output

    My final thoughts

    Here my feeling after playing a little bit with my new infrastructure.

    Based on this first installation, we must face the facts: building a SQL Server FCI infrastructure is a fastest process on Linux in comparison to the same in Windows but I prefer to be prudent and not to draw hasty conclusions. Let’s see what we are going to have in the RTM release. One important thing I noticed for example is there is no explicit cluster validation compared to Windows at least in appearance. In fact, if we take a closer look at the cluster side, we already have some validation steps during the cluster creation (node authentication and cluster setup). However, I didn’t see any validation step at the SQL Server side (compared to Windows) except basic verifications which include verifying the standalones instances are able to start and share the same storage.

    Moreover, one another important point we may notice is that we don’t need to setup DNS servers to run the cluster infrastructure. During my tests, I didn’t use it (hostname resolution was made only from /etc/hosts file) but as soon as I had to connect my infrastructure from remote computers, DNS resolution became almost mandatory :)

    Finally, there is a plenty of tests to perform to understand how behave the cluster layer as well as the cluster resource.

    Well, there is still a way to go in order to complete all my work on Linux. To be continued ….

     

     

     

     

    Cet article Introducing high-availability with SQL Server on Linux est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    2016 is over and it was great, 2017 will be even more exiting in the open source area

    Fri, 2017-01-13 10:05

    Disclaimer: This will not be a technical post at all. The goal is to provide a short overview of what we did in 2016 and what we plan to do in 2017 when it comes to our Open Infrastructure division. We’ll start with a few numbers then look at the events we did and some of the projects we completed in 2016. Here we go …

    We had a total number of 90 blog posts in 2016 covering the following areas: Linux, MySQL/MariaDB, MongoDB, Cassandra, Mirantis, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, Docker, Ansible, Amazon AWS. Here is the list for 2016:

    installing-edb-postgres-advanced-server-9-5
    the-postgres-plus-cloud-database
    avoiding-access-to-the-public-schema-in-postgresql
    using-the-official-postgresql-yum-repositories
    external-tables-in-postgresql
    postgresql-on-amazon-rds-loading-the-beast
    postgresql-on-amazon-rds-adding-a-replica-to-the-beast
    postgresql-on-amazon-rds-configuring-the-beast
    postgresql-on-amazon-rds-securing-the-beast
    postgresql-on-amazon-rds-setting-up-the-beast
    the-dbi-services-postgresql-reference-architecture-2-the-community-approach
    edb-postgres-advanced-server-9-5-new-features-profiles
    install-pljava-in-postgresql-9-5-1
    feeding-blogsrrs-items-directly-into-your-postgresql-database
    pre-warming-the-buffer-cache-in-postgresql
    transactional-ddl
    install-pljava-in-postgres-plus-advanced-server-9-5
    launching-a-vm-with-the-amazon-aws-command-line-tools
    linux-how-to-check-the-exit-status-of-several-piped-commands
    lvm-how-to-extend-a-volume-group
    linux-quick-tip-what-is-the-local-time-in-kolkata
    mongodb-installation
    introduction-to-mongodb
    getting-started-with-ansible-preparations
    the-almost-same-sample-schema-for-all-major-relational-databases-4-mssql
    connecting-your-postgresql-instance-to-a-mariadbmysql-instance
    the-almost-same-sample-schema-for-all-major-relational-databases-3-mysqlmariadb
    maintenance-scenarios-with-edb-failover-manager-3-witness-node
    maintenance-scenarios-with-edb-failover-manager-2-primary-node
    the-almost-same-sample-schema-for-all-major-relational-databases-2-oracle
    the-almost-same-sample-schema-for-all-major-relational-databases-1-postgresql
    stay-tuned-with-kernel-parameters
    maintenance-scenarios-with-edb-failover-manager-1-standby-node
    a-look-at-postgresql-9-6-psql-gexec-2
    a-look-at-postgresql-9-6-killing-idle-transactions-automatically
    a-look-at-postgresql-9-6-progress-reporting-for-vacuum-operations
    a-look-at-postgresql-9-6-the-wait-interface
    happy-birthday-postgresql
    connecting-your-postgresql-instance-to-a-microsoft-sql-server-instance
    interested-in-the-most-advanced-open-source-database-where-you-can-meet-us-in-june
    postgresql-as-a-central-reporting-hub-yes-of-course
    swiss-pgday-2016-slides-are-online
    which-parameter-changes-do-require-a-restart-of-my-postgresql-instance
    shrinking-oracle-vm-virtualbox-with-zerofree
    elasticsearch-kibana-logstash-and-filebeat-centralize-all-your-database-logs-and-even-more
    getting-started-with-ansible-creating-the-postgresql-instance
    getting-started-with-ansible-download-the-postgresql-sources-compile-and-install
    getting-started-with-ansible-installing-os-packages-creating-groups-and-users/
    gettin-ansible-up-and-running-on-a-sles-12-sp1-host
    how-to-do-a-filesystem-resize-ext3ext4-on-redhat-running-on-vmware
    running-postgresql-on-zfs-on-linux-fun-with-snapshots-and-clones
    running-postgresql-on-zfs-on-linux
    connecting-your-postgresql-instance-to-an-oracle-database-debian-version
    the-dbi-open-infrastructure-technology-division
    sharding-with-postgresql
    what-the-hell-are-these-template0-and-template1-databases-in-postgresql
    securing-your-connections-to-postgresql-by-using-ssl
    edb-failover-manager-2-1-two-new-features
    edb-failover-manager-2-1-upgrading
    disable-red-hat-7-transparent-hugepages
    auditing-in-postgresql
    understanding-row-level-security-on-postgresql
    mariadb-audit-plugin
    how-to-install-mirantis-openstack-9-0-using-virtualbox-part-1-3
    how-to-install-mirantis-openstack-9-0-using-virtualbox-part-1-2
    how-to-install-mirantis-openstack-9-0-using-virtualbox-part-1
    how-to-patch-postgres-plus-advanced-server-in-a-standby-configuration
    running-a-cassandra-cluster-in-a-single-server
    how-to-patch-postgres-plus-advanced-server
    apache-cassandra-overview
    running-postgresql-on-zfs-on-linux-compression
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-5-generating-ddl-commands
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-4-external-tables
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-3-tablespaces
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-2-dual
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-1-restore-points
    mongodb-installation-on-windows
    managing-my-amazon-web-services-redhat-instance
    linux-instance-in-amazon-web-services-aws
    edb-postgres-advanced-server-9-6-beta-released
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-8-transportable-tablespaces
    getting-started-with-docker-2-building-your-own-base-image
    getting-started-with-docker-1-overview-and-installation
    enterprisedb-backup-and-recovery-tool-bart
    installing-postgresql-9-6-1-with-enterprisedb-installer
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-7-partitioning
    oel-7-project-quotas-on-oracle-homes-with-xfs-on-oracle-linux-7
    oel-7-how-to-disable-ipv6-on-oracle-linux-7
    from-mysql-oracle-to-postgres-using-the-edb-migration-toolkit
    can-i-do-it-with-postgresql-6-server-programming

    Quite a lot of information was shared. For 2017 you should see more posts in the Cloudera and OpenStack areas as well as the private DBaaS service we are currently working on.

    But obviously we did not only write blogs :) There have been two PostgreSQL events organized by us, we sponsored and had two talks at the Swiss PGDay 2016 and we had a talk at the IT Tage 2016 in Frankfurt.
    For 2017 we’ll be organizing an Oracle · Open Infrastructure · Cloudera & Big Data Appliance event, we’ll be at the Swiss PGDay 2017 and probably we’ll be at the IT Tage in Frankfurt again. If nothing goes wrong we’ll be at the M|17 in New York. This is what currently is scheduled, maybe there will be even more.

    For the projects we did in 2016 there was a lot of stuff: We did high available EnterpriseDB PPAS projects, we did high available community PostgreSQL projects, we did a MongoDB project and we even did a PostgreSQL project on Windows. We implemented Ansible at a customer to automate the PostgreSQL deployments. There have been several MariaDB and MySQL Galera cluster implementations as well as MySQL Cluster Control setups. Out of all these projects we got several SLAs signed for MySQL as well as for PostgreSQL, which is a great thing as this proves that our customers trust us. On top of that we certified 7 of our service desk people on EnterpriseDB Postgres Plus (EDB Postgres Advanced Server 9.5 Professional). Nobody in the D-A-CH region achieved that until now.
    For 2017 there are already some projects in the pipe: One huge migration from another vendor to PostgreSQL/EDB, a migration from another vendor to community PostgreSQL. We will assist a customer in building a high available, extremely flexible PostgreSQL deployment for their web infrastructure. For two other projects we’ll migrate existing PostgreSQL deployments to PostgreSQL 9.5 and there will be one huge 6TB migration from PostgreSQL 9.2 to a recent release. And this is just what is known today.

    Workshops: In 2016 we released our PostgreSQL DBA Essentials Workshop which was given four times since then. The MySQL DBA Essentials workshop was also given several times last year.
    For 2017 the MySQL workshop will be updated and we plan to release a brand new MongoDB workshop.

    In 2016 we released DMK for PostgreSQL and NoSQL.
    For 2017 all DMK releases will be updated with the latest and greatest we learned at our customers. One big announcement will be an appliance based on open source products. I can not tell you much right now but there will be some news in the next weeks.

    You can see that we invested much in these areas in 2016 and 2017 will be no exception to that. The trend goes even up.

    Finally my personal wish list for 2017: Dare to be more open, more flexible and to have fun when you work in your IT landscape. Great things can be build based on open source tools.

    PS: To my colleagues: I am sure I forgot one or the other thing we did in 2016 which needs to mentioned here. Just leave a comment to complete the list :)

    Happy new 2017
    Daniel

     

    Cet article 2016 is over and it was great, 2017 will be even more exiting in the open source area est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    dbi Tail ranked as the 4th best alternative !

    Fri, 2017-01-13 08:19

    Dear colleagues,

    Since the publication of the dbi Tail one year ago, lots of people downloaded, and some reporters wrote articles about it.

    We have got many positive feedbacks, and we would like to thank you all for your attention !

     

    The best article is from Softpedia website, and the author made an interesting description of the tool as you can see:

    http://www.softpedia.com/get/System/File-Management/dbi-Tail.shtml

     

    More interesting, in June, the tool was published alongside of the reference on the “Alternative to” website. Since then, the tail from dbi services was moving higher and higher quite without interruption.

    At one point in time, it was ranked as the 3rd best alternative of the reference. Today, it is in the 4th position. What a good feeling !

     

    During one year the development of the tail continued, and new features were integrated. The biggest one was to allow SSH connection using a public key authentication, enabling the possibility of connecting without any password. In fact just by using a trusted user public key.

    The other one is the ability to quickly navigate between the several “tree” files present in your “etc” folder. In fact this will enhance the user experience by grouping the monitor log files for one context, and the switching to another context (another “tree” file) just in one click.

     

    In the freshly 1.3 version of dbi tail, you can also benefit from some bug fixes and enhancements especially for the Linux environment.

    Enjoy continuing to use dbi tail, and do not hesitate to provide your feedback or to like it as well:

    http://alternativeto.net/software/baretail/

     

    dbi tail is an alive open source project, and will continue to be in the future !

    https://github.com/pschweitz/DBITail/releases

     

    Cheers,

    Philippe

     

    tail1.3

     

     

    Cet article dbi Tail ranked as the 4th best alternative ! est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    Dataguard Oracle 12.2 : Support for Multiple Observers

    Tue, 2017-01-10 11:53

    With Oracle 12cR2 it is now possible to configure multiple observers within a single Oracle Data Guard broker configuration.
    Multiple observers provide an immediate benefit for High Availability. If one observer fails, there are additional observers that can continue to monitor the status of the configuration.
    In this blog we are going to talk about this new feature.

    Our configuration have 3 servers:
    primaserver.localdomain with db_unique_name ORCL_SITE
    standserver1.localdomain with db_unique_name ORCL_SITE1
    standserver2.localdomain with db_unique_name ORCL_SITE2

    With Oracle 12cR2 you can register up to three observers to monitor a single Data Guard broker configuration. Each observer is identified by a name that you supply when you issue the START OBSERVER command

    Let’s start with a configuration where the Fast Start Failover is disabled

    DGMGRL> show configuration;
    Configuration - ORCL_DR
    Protection Mode: MaxProtection
    Members:
    ORCL_SITE - Primary database
    ORCL_SITE1 - Physical standby database
    ORCL_SITE2 - Physical standby database
    Fast-Start Failover: DISABLED
    Configuration Status:
    SUCCESS (status updated 11 seconds ago)
    DGMGRL>

    And let’s start an observer on each server

    DGMGRL> connect sys/root@orcl_site
    Connected to "ORCL_SITE"
    Connected as SYSDBA.DGMGRL> start observer prima_observer
    [W000 01/05 10:46:03.89] FSFO target standby is (empty)


    DGMGRL> connect sys/root@ORCL_SITE1
    Connected to "ORCL_SITE1"
    Connected as SYSDBA.
    DGMGRL> start observer standserver1_observer
    [W000 01/05 10:47:19.22] FSFO target standby is (empty)


    DGMGRL> connect sys/root@orcl_site2
    Connected to "ORCL_SITE2"
    Connected as SYSDBA.
    DGMGRL> start observer standserver2_observer
    [W000 01/05 10:48:25.86] FSFO target standby is (empty)

    When fast-start failover is disabled the observer does not need to coordinate fast-start failover, so all observers are equivalent and have the same functionality as shown below

    DGMGRL> show observer;
    Configuration - ORCL_DR
    Fast-Start Failover: DISABLED
    Observer "prima_observer"
    Host Name: primaserver.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 17 seconds ago
    Observer "standserver1_observer"
    Host Name: standserver1.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 2 seconds ago
    Observer "standserver2_observer"
    Host Name: standserver2.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 25 seconds ago
    DGMGRL>

    Now let’s enable the Fast Start Failover

    DGMGRL> enable FAST_START FAILOVER
    Enabled.


    DGMGRL> show configuration
    Configuration - ORCL_DR
    Protection Mode: MaxProtection
    Members:
    ORCL_SITE - Primary database
    ORCL_SITE1 - (*) Physical standby database
    ORCL_SITE2 - Physical standby database
    Fast-Start Failover: ENABLED
    Configuration Status:
    SUCCESS (status updated 43 seconds ago)
    DGMGRL>

    Now that FSFO is enabled, we have a Master observer and Backup observers. The master observer works in the same manner that a single observer worked prior to the advent of multiple observers in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1).
    Only the master observer can coordinate fast-start failover with Data Guard broker. All other registered observers are considered to be backup observers. The master observer is randomly chosen by the primary and the standby.

    DGMGRL> show observer;
    Configuration - ORCL_DR
    Primary: ORCL_SITE
    Target: ORCL_SITE1
    Observer "prima_observer" - Master
    Host Name: primaserver.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 3 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 0 seconds ago
    Observer "standserver1_observer" - Backup
    Host Name: standserver1.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 2 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 3 seconds ago
    Observer "standserver2_observer" - Backup
    Host Name: standserver2.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 2 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 2 seconds ago
    DGMGRL>

    If we try to stop the master observer, we will get an error

    DGMGRL> stop observer prima_observer
    Error: ORA-16878: master observer cannot be stopped
    Failed.
    DGMGRL>

    It means that if for one reason we want to stop an observer that is the master one, we have to promote a backup observer as the new master. The command SET MASTEROBSERVER is used to manually change the master observer

    DGMGRL> SET MASTEROBSERVER to standserver2_observer
    Sent the proposed master observer to the data guard broker configuration.
    Please run SHOW OBSERVER to see if master observer switch actually happens.
    DGMGRL>

    We can see that now the new master is standserver2_observer

    DGMGRL> show observer;
    Configuration - ORCL_DR
    Primary: ORCL_SITE
    Target: ORCL_SITE1
    Observer "standserver2_observer" - Master
    Host Name: standserver2.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 0 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 1 second ago
    Observer "prima_observer" - Backup
    Host Name: primaserver.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 0 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 2 seconds ago
    Observer "standserver1_observer" - Backup
    Host Name: standserver1.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 1 second ago
    Last Ping to Target: 1 second ago
    DGMGRL>

    Now if we crash the server hosting the master observer (i.e. standserver2.localdomain), one of the backup observers will automatically be the new master.

    DGMGRL> show observer;
    Configuration - ORCL_DR
    Primary: ORCL_SITE
    Target: ORCL_SITE1
    Observer "prima_observer" - Master
    Host Name: primaserver.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 2 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 1 second ago
    Observer "standserver1_observer" - Backup
    Host Name: standserver1.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 2 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 0 seconds ago
    Observer "standserver2_observer" - Backup
    Host Name: standserver2.localdomain
    Last Ping to Primary: 119 seconds ago
    Last Ping to Target: 84 seconds ago

    What happens if we try to start a fourth observer?

    DGMGRL> connect sys/root@ORCL_SITE1
    Connected to "ORCL_SITE1"
    Connected as SYSDBA.
    DGMGRL> start observer fourth_observer
    Error: ORA-16647: could not start more than three observers
    Failed to start the observer.
    DGMGRL>

    As we see above, we cannot have more than 3 observers.

    One important thing about multiple observers is that we have only more availability for the observer but not for the FSFO configuration. This means that if we lose at the same time the primary database and the master observer, no fast-start failover will be initiated.

    Let’s represent this by some configurations
    Case1: Master observer and primary database are located in the same datacenter
    observer1
    Fast Start Failover will not occur if we lose Primary Datacenter

    Case2: Master observer and primary database are located in different datacenters
    observer2
    Fast Start Failover will occur if we lose Primary datacenter

    Case3: Master observer and primary database are located in different datacenters
    observer3
    Fast Start Failover will occur if we lose Primary datacenter

    Conclusion: Support of multiple observers is a very nice feature. When using this feature, master observer and primary database should not be located in the same datacenter

     

    Cet article Dataguard Oracle 12.2 : Support for Multiple Observers est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    ORA-12801 and ORA-12154 with OracleRestart / GRID / RAC on Oracle Database 12c

    Tue, 2017-01-10 11:39
    ORA-12801 and ORA-12154 with OracleRestart / GRID / RAC on Oracle Database 12c Symptom/Analysis:

    Using Oracle 12c in a RAC environment, you may encounter the following errors:

    ORA-12801: error signaled in parallel query server P000, instance rac2.localdomain:DBRAC2 (2)
    ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified

    In this article, we will present you an issue that is inspired from a real case:

    olivier@olivier-ThinkPad-T550 ~ $ sqlplus sys/***@DBRAC1 as sysdba
    
    SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Jan 9 15:03:42 2017
    Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
    Connected to:
    Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
    With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,
    Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options
    SQL> 
    select count(*) from DBA_OBJECTS@DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS, SCOTT.OBJECTS;
    exit
    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-12801: error signaled in parallel query server P000, instance rac2.localdomain:DBRAC2 (2)
    ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified
    

    The following queries return answers with no error:

    SQL> select count(*) from DBA_OBJECTS@DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS;
    COUNT(*)
    ----------
    20342
    
    SQL> select count(*) from SCOTT.OBJECTS;
    COUNT(*)
    ----------
    90951
    

    Strange !
    select * from A is working.
    select * from B is working.
    select * from A,B is not working.

    Let’s check if TNS_ADMIN Oracle environment variable is set in the session:
    We will use the dbms_system.get_env function

    dbms_system.get_env()
    
    SQL> 
    set serveroutput on
    DECLARE
    RetVal VARCHAR2(4000);
    BEGIN
    dbms_system.get_env('TNS_ADMIN', RetVal);
    dbms_output.put_line('TNS_ADMIN: '||RetVal);
    END;
    /
    SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7
    TNS_ADMIN: /u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    TNS_ADMIN is set correctly.

    The dblink is working and is correctly created:

    dba_db_links
    
    SQL> SELECT owner, db_link, username, host FROM   dba_db_links ORDER BY owner, db_link;
    OWNER	DB_LINK 		  USERNAME   HOST
    ------- ------------------------- ---------- --------------------
    PUBLIC	DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS	  SYSTEM     DBONE-MYHOME-TNS
    
    DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL
    
    QL> SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('DB_LINK','DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS','PUBLIC') ddl from dual;
    DDL
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK "DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS" 
       CONNECT TO "SYSTEM" IDENTIFIED BY VALUES ':1' USING 'DBONE-MYHOME-TNS'
    
    /u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/tnsnames.ora
    
    DBONE-MYHOME-TNS =
      (DESCRIPTION =
        (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = X.X.X.X)(PORT = 1521))
        (CONNECT_DATA =
          (SERVER = DEDICATED)
          (SID = ONE)
        )
      )
    

    So what ?
    Let’s print the SQL plan:

    SQL> explain plan for
    2 select count(*) from DBA_OBJECTS@DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS,SCOTT.OBJECTS;
    Explained
    SQL> select * from table(dbms_xplan.display);
    PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Plan hash value: 1869185832
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Id  | Operation		 | Name        | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | TQ/Ins |IN-OUT| PQ Distrib |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |   0 | SELECT STATEMENT	 |	       |     1 | 19591	 (2)| 00:00:01 |	|      |	    |
    |   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE 	 |	       |     1 |	    |	       |	|      |	    |
    |   2 |   PX COORDINATOR	 |	       |       |	    |	       |	|      |	    |
    |   3 |    PX SEND QC (RANDOM)	 | :TQ10001    |     1 |	    |	       |  Q1,01 | P->S | QC (RAND)  |
    |   4 |     SORT AGGREGATE	 |	       |     1 |	    |	       |  Q1,01 | PCWP |	    |
    |   5 |      MERGE JOIN CARTESIAN|	       |  1810M| 19591	 (2)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |	    |
    |   6 |       BUFFER SORT	 |	       |       |	    |	       |  Q1,01 | PCWC |	    |
    |   7 |        PX RECEIVE	 |	       | 19911 |    65	 (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |	    |
    |   8 | 	PX SEND BROADCAST| :TQ10000    | 19911 |    65	 (0)| 00:00:01 |	| S->P | BROADCAST  |
    |   9 | 	 REMOTE 	 | DBA_OBJECTS | 19911 |    65	 (0)| 00:00:01 | DBLIN~ | R->S |	       |
    |  10 |       BUFFER SORT	 |	       | 90951 | 19526	 (2)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |	    |
    |  11 |        PX BLOCK ITERATOR |	       | 90951 |    15	 (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWC |	    |
    |  12 | 	TABLE ACCESS FULL| OBJECTS     | 90951 |    15	 (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |	    |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Remote SQL Information (identified by operation id):
    ----------------------------------------------------
    9 - SELECT 0 FROM "DBA_OBJECTS" "DBA_OBJECTS" (accessing 'DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS' )
    Note
    -----
    - Degree of Parallelism is 4 because of table property
    29 rows selected.
     
    

    Parallelism is enabled for the query.
    Let’s disable it !

    SQL> ALTER SESSION disable parallel query;
    

    Let’s run our query again:

    SQL> select count(*) from DBA_OBJECTS@DBLINK_ONE_MYHOME_TNS,SCOTT.OBJECTS;
      COUNT(*)
    ----------
    1850125242
    

    It is working now, but without using parallelism features.

    Problem:

    In fact, the problem comes from the environment variable TNS_ADMIN that is not (or not correctly) set for the PX servers process:

    When parallelism is enabled, the PX servers are doing all the work. (as shown in our parallel plans)
    On the server, PX server processes can be easily identified on the OS level. On Linux they are the processes ora_p***:
    Source: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/bi-datawarehousing/twp-parallel-execution-fundamentals-133639.pdf

    [oracle@rac1 admin]$ ps -ef | grep ora_p0
    
    oracle 25803 1 0 11:21 ? 00:00:00 ora_p000_DBRAC1
    oracle 25805 1 0 11:21 ? 00:00:00 ora_p001_DBRAC1
    oracle 25807 1 0 11:21 ? 00:00:00 ora_p002_DBRAC1
    oracle 25809 1 0 11:21 ? 00:00:00 ora_p003_DBRAC1
    oracle 28021 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p004_DBRAC1
    oracle 28023 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p005_DBRAC1
    oracle 28025 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p006_DBRAC1
    oracle 28027 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p007_DBRAC1
    oracle 28029 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p008_DBRAC1
    oracle 28031 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p009_DBRAC1
    oracle 28033 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p00a_DBRAC1
    oracle 28035 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p00b_DBRAC1
    oracle 28037 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p00c_DBRAC1
    oracle 28039 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p00d_DBRAC1
    oracle 28041 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p00e_DBRAC1
    oracle 28047 1 0 14:25 ? 00:00:00 ora_p00f_DBRAC1
    

    The file /proc/25803/environ contains the Oracle environment variables set for the P000 Process:
    Command “sudo strings /proc/25803/environ | grep TNS_” give no result.
    Source: https://blogs.oracle.com/myoraclediary/entry/how_to_check_environment_variables

    If we check the environ file of the listener processes, we can see that the TNS_ADMIN is correctly set.

    [oracle@rac1 ~]$ ps -ef | grep lsn
    
    oracle 2731 12705 0 14:49 pts/0 00:00:00 grep --color=auto lsn
    oracle 4176 1 0 08:57 ? 00:00:00 /u01/app/grid/bin/tnslsnr MGMTLSNR -no_crs_notify -inherit
    oracle 4309 1 0 08:57 ? 00:00:00 /u01/app/grid/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER_SCAN2 -no_crs_notify -inherit
    oracle 4320 1 0 08:57 ? 00:00:00 /u01/app/grid/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER_SCAN3 -no_crs_notify -inherit
    oracle 9059 1 0 12:01 ? 00:00:00 /u01/app/grid/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -no_crs_notify -inherit
    
    [oracle@rac1 ~]$ sudo strings /proc/9059/environ | grep TNS_
    
    TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin
    

    This small environ.sh script for the lazy one can list the Oracle environment variables set for all the PX Server process and pmon:

    environ.sh
    
    #!/bin/bash
    mypspmon='/tmp/pspmon'
    myprocess1='pmon_DB'
    myprocess2='ora_p00'
    ps -ef | grep $myprocess1 | awk '{print $2}' > $mypspmon
    ps -ef | grep $myprocess2 | awk '{print $2}' >> $mypspmon
    while read ligne;
    do
    myenvironfile="/proc/${ligne#* }/environ"
    if [ -e "$myenvironfile" ]
    then
    strings $myenvironfile
    fi
    done < $mypspmon
    

    “sudo ./environ.sh | grep TNS” give no result
    The TNS_ADMIN Oracle environment variable is not set for the PX server processes that are spawn to handle the parallel queries.

    Solution:
    1. Be sure to set the TNS_ADMIN with srvctl !!
    2. Source: https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/rac.102/b14197/srvctladmin.htm#i1010191

      [oracle@rac1 ~]$ srvctl setenv listener -l LISTENER -t TNS_ADMIN='/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/'
      [oracle@rac1 ~]$ srvctl setenv database -d DBRAC -t TNS_ADMIN='/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/'
      

      Let’s check if the variable are correctly set

      [oracle@rac1 ~]$ srvctl getenv listener -l LISTENER -t TNS_ADMIN
      
      LISTENER:
      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      
      [oracle@rac1 ~]$ srvctl getenv database -d DBRAC -t TNS_ADMIN
      
      DBRAC:
      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      

      TNS_ADMIN seems to be correctly set but we still receive ORA-12801 ORA-12154 errors.
      Moreover “sudo ./environ.sh | grep TNS” still gives no result !
      You need to restart database to set up thoroughly the TNS_ADMIN environment variable database !!

      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ srvctl stop listener -l LISTENER
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ srvctl start listener -l LISTENER
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ srvctl stop database -d DBRAC
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ srvctl start database -d DBRAC
      
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ srvctl status listener -l LISTENER
      
      Listener LISTENER is enabled
      Listener LISTENER is running on node(s): rac1,rac2
      
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ srvctl status database -d DBRAC
      
      Instance DBRAC1 is running on node rac1
      Instance DBRAC2 is running on node rac2
      

      Now our “sudo ./environ.sh | grep TNS” commands list the TNS_ADMIN environment variable used by our pmon and px server processes.

      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      [...]
      TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/
      

      And our query is working using parallelism features.

    3. Other solutions exist:
    4. One of them would consist in modifying USR_ORA_ENV cluster resources attribute values with crsctl

      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ crsctl modify resource ora.dbrac.db -attr "USR_ORA_ENV=TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/"
      
      CRS-4995: The command 'Modify resource' is invalid in crsctl. Use srvctl for this command.
      

      In 12c, just add the flag -unsupported ad the end to avoid CRS-4995 errors.
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ crsctl modify resource ora.dbrac.db -attr “USR_ORA_ENV=TNS_ADMIN=/u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/” -unsupported

    Comments:
    1. This issue is inspired from a real case. You can easily reproduce the issue
    2. SCOTT.OBJECTS table was created like that.

      SCOTT.OBJECTS
      
      create table SCOTT.OBJECTS as select * from DBA_OBJECTS;
      alter table scott parallel 32;
      

      Add an entry in your tnsnames.ora and create a dblink
      You can remove TNS_ADMIN environment database with “srvctl unsetenv database -d database -t TNS_ADMIN” command. And restart.

    3. On the server, on the OS level, if ORACLE_HOME is set and TNS_ADMIN is not set then $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin is used to locate tnsname.ora
    4. So it can be interesting to use symlink (ln -s) in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin to point and use the same tnsnames.ora file when using sqlplus from the server.

      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ pwd
      
      /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin
      
      [oracle@rac1 admin]$ ll
      
      total 0
      lrwxrwxrwx 1 oracle oinstall 36 Jan 10 09:53 listener.ora -> /u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/listener.ora
      lrwxrwxrwx 1 oracle oinstall 34 Jan 10 09:53 sqlnet.ora -> /u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/sqlnet.ora
      lrwxrwxrwx 1 oracle oinstall 36 Jan 10 09:53 tnsnames.ora -> /u01/app/MyNetworkAdmin/tnsnames.ora
      

    But remember, although the TNS_ADMIN environment is set on the OS level when starting the instance, you need to to set the TNS_ADMIN with srvctl or crsctl before !!
    If not, you may encounter ORA-12154 errors.
    And not only for PDML !!

     

    Cet article ORA-12801 and ORA-12154 with OracleRestart / GRID / RAC on Oracle Database 12c est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    Oracle 12cR2 : Partitioning improvements – online conversion of a non-partitioned table to a partitioned table

    Fri, 2017-01-06 04:22

    It’s time to a new blog about partitioning improvement in 12cR2.
    After auto-list partitioning and multi-column list partitioning & read-only partitions, I’ll demonstrate how we can easily convert a non-partitioned table to a partitioned table…online !

    As a reminder, the way to convert a table to a partitioned table were to use the DBMS_REDEFINITION package (since 9i to 12cR1) which require few steps :

    1. Verify that the table is a candidate for redefinition :
      DBMS_REDEFINITION.CAN_REDEF_TABLE
    2. Create an interim partitioned table
    3. Start the redefinition :
      DBMS_REDEFINITION.START_REDEF_TABLE
    4. Copy dependent objects to the new table (grants, constraints, …) :
      DBMS_REDEFINITION.COPY_TABLE_DEPENDENTS
    5. Synchronize the interim table (optional) :
      DBMS_REDEFINITION.SYNC_INTERIM_TABLE
    6. Complete the redefinition :
      DBMS_REDEFINITION.FINISH_REDEF_TABLE

    With 12cR2, the conversion can be done in one shot :

    Non-partitioned table creation :
    SQL> CREATE TABLE sales_non_part
    (
    sales_id NUMBER(5),
    sales_name VARCHAR2(30),
    sales_city VARCHAR2(20),
    sales_amount NUMBER(10)
    );
    Table created.

    Data insertion :
    SQL> INSERT INTO sales_non_part VALUES (1, 'JOHN', 'DELEMONT', 10);
    1 row created.


    SQL> INSERT INTO sales_non_part VALUES (2, 'JANE', 'BERN', 150);
    1 row created.


    SQL> INSERT INTO sales_non_part VALUES (3, 'JACK', 'NYON', 20);
    1 row created.

    Before starting the conversion, I’ll enable the lock tracing to prove that the operation is made online.
    You can take note of the new statement in 12cR2 to enable it :
    SQL> ALTER SESSION SET events='trace[ksq] disk medium';


    Session altered.

    (The “old” one was : alter session set events=’10704 trace name context forever, level 3′;)

    Let’s start the conversion of the sales_non_part table :
    SQL> ALTER TABLE sales_non_part MODIFY PARTITION BY LIST (sales_city) AUTOMATIC (PARTITION p_delemont VALUES ('DELEMONT')) ONLINE;


    Table altered.

    Looks good. Quick check of the partitions :
    SQL> SELECT partition_name, high_value FROM dba_tab_partitions WHERE table_name = 'SALES_NON_PART';


    PARTITION_NAME HIGH_VALUE
    -------------------- ------------------------------
    P_DELEMONT 'DELEMONT'
    SYS_P5537 'BERN'
    SYS_P5538 'NYON'

    The table is now partitioned by list and with the AUTOMATIC option.
    Now, we can check the locks which were applied on the table during the conversion, firstly by finding the objects ID of the table and of the partitions :
    SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(object_id,'0XXXXXXX'), object_name, object_type FROM all_objects WHERE owner='SYS' and object_name='SALES_NON_PART' ORDER BY 2;


    TO_CHAR(O OBJECT_NAME OBJECT_TYPE
    --------- --------------- ------------------------------
    00011CD1 SALES_NON_PART TABLE
    00011CE0 SALES_NON_PART TABLE PARTITION
    00011CE1 SALES_NON_PART TABLE PARTITION
    00011CE2 SALES_NON_PART TABLE PARTITION

    Then by looking for the generated trace file :
    SQL> SELECT tracefile FROM v$process WHERE addr=(SELECT paddr FROM v$session WHERE sid=sys_context('USERENV','SID'));


    TRACEFILE
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/trace/orcl_ora_8223.trc

    And finally by checking inside the file which kind of locks were hold on the objects :
    SQL> host cat /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/trace/orcl_ora_8223.trc | grep -e 00011CD1 -e 00011CE0 -e 00011CE1 -e 00011CE2;


    2016-12-16 11:22:09.821*:ksq.c@9006:ksqgtlctx(): *** TM-00011CD1-00000000-00000000-00000000 mode=3 flags=0x401 why=165 timeout=0 ***
    2016-12-16 11:22:09.871*:ksq.c@9006:ksqgtlctx(): *** OD-00011CD1-00000000-00000000-00000000 mode=6 flags=0x10401 why=264 timeout=0 ***
    2016-12-16 11:22:10.283*:ksq.c@9006:ksqgtlctx(): *** DL-00011CE0-00000000-00000000-00000000 mode=3 flags=0x10001 why=207 timeout=0 ***
    2016-12-16 11:22:10.283*:ksq.c@9006:ksqgtlctx(): *** DL-00011CE1-00000000-00000000-00000000 mode=3 flags=0x10001 why=207 timeout=0 ***
    2016-12-16 11:22:10.283*:ksq.c@9006:ksqgtlctx(): *** DL-00011CE2-00000000-00000000-00000000 mode=3 flags=0x10001 why=207 timeout=0 ***

    One TM-lock mode=3 (Row Exclusive lock) were holds on the table. So the DML operations stay possible during the conversion !
    Conclusion : the conversion is really done online :-)

    Information concerning the others locks :
    OD (Online DDL) lock : used internally to allow truly online DDL operations
    DL : lock to prevent index DDL during direct load
    TM : synchronizes accesses to an object

     

    Cet article Oracle 12cR2 : Partitioning improvements – online conversion of a non-partitioned table to a partitioned table est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    Dealing with WSFC 2016 quarantine state and availability groups

    Thu, 2017-01-05 15:12

    I was playing with my lab environment which includes Windows 2016 and SQL Server 2016 and I noticed an interesting scenario while testing cluster node failures. After simulating some network outage scenarios, I was not able to bring back my cluster node online immediately by using traditional way. A quick look at the cluster manager led me to notice something new:

    blog 113 - 0 - WSFC new state

    A quarantined state value … interesting! But what does it mean exactly?

    In respect of this Microsoft blog from the Server and management team, this is a new feature shipped with Windows Server 2016 that concerns Virtual Machine Compute Resiliency. To cut the long story short, this feature is intended to improve of response of the Windows Failover Cluster to transient failures. Initially, it was designed for Hyper-V virtual machines resiliency and it has been introduced to avoid “flapping nodes” phenomena which may impact negatively the overall cluster health.

    To illustrate the benefit of this feature, let’s go back to my failure scenario which consisted in simulating random network failures. Experiencing such scenario in production environment may lead to an unstable cluster state including quorum loss in the worst scenario. In fact, after 3 failure events, the concerned cluster node was quarantined and we may confirm by looking at the new following parameters (QuarantineThreshold is our concern here). The other parameter QuarantineDuration defines the timeframe during which the cluster node is not able to join the cluster, so basically two hours.

    blog 113 - 1 - WSFC quarantine parameters

    In my case, the WIN20169SQL16 node will not automatically join the cluster until 22:56:38 in my case.

    blog 113 - 2 - WSFC quarantine error log

    What about my availability group? Well no surprise here, the quarantined cluster node means an availability replica disconnected and a synchronization issue as well as confirmed below:

     

    blog 113 - 3 - availability group state

    We many notice a corresponding error number 100060 with the message An error occurred while receiving data: ‘10060(A connection attempt failed because the connected party did not properly respond after a period of time, or established connection failed because connected host has failed to respond.)’. There is no specific message from SQL Server error log about quarantine state. From the secondary replica, I got the following sample message into the SQL Server error log:

    blog 113 - 4 - secondary replica error log

    SQL Server is waiting for the cluster node to start and rejoin the WSFC. In short, the overall availability health state will not change while the quarantined node is active. So according to your context, it may be a good thing until you don’t fix the related issue on the concerned cluster node. Fortunately, as stated to the Microsoft document, this is not mandatory for us to wait for the quarantined period to finish by using the following PowerShell command:

    blog 113 - 5 - WSFC start cluster node

    Here we go! The cluster health state got back to normal

    blog 113 - 6 - WSFC final state

    Happy clustering!

     

     

     

     

    Cet article Dealing with WSFC 2016 quarantine state and availability groups est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

    12cR2: no cardinality feedback for small queries

    Thu, 2017-01-05 09:52

    This follows the comments on Clemens Bleile post about SQL Plan Directives in Oracle 12.2 where he discovered a new behavior that is not documented. The feature is good: bypass the cardinality feedback overhead when the query is fast anyway.

    Feature

    In Clemens Bleile post about SQL Plan Directives changes in 12cR2 he determined than the new feature coming in bug 23596611 was responsible for the bypass of automatic reoptimization (the 12c cardinality feedback) in some cases.

    The description gives the idea that the reason for the bypass of cardinality feedback is ‘small queries':

    SQL> select BUGNO,SQL_FEATURE,DESCRIPTION,OPTIMIZER_FEATURE_ENABLE from v$system_fix_control where bugno=23596611;
     
    BUGNO SQL_FEATURE DESCRIPTION OPTIMIZER_FEATURE_ENABLE
    ---------- ------------------------------ -------------------------------------- -------------------------
    23596611 QKSFM_STATS_FEEDBACK_23596611 No feedback for small queries 12.2.0.1

    This is a new concept and in the traces we know there is nothing about ‘small queries’. Here is how to get more information.

    Function

    First, I’m looking for the ‘small queries’ text in the oracle executable:

    $ strings $ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle | grep "small query"
    kkocfbCheckCardEst: No feedback for small query (BG %f, CPU %f (ms)
    kkocfbCompareExecStats: skipping cost comparision forsmall query (BG %f, CPU %f (ms)

    Good. This looks like there is a way to trace some information about that bypass decision, and there’s a clue that ‘small queries’ are evaluated on number of buffer gets (BG) and CPU time threshold. More than that, we have the name of the C function that traces this: kkocfbCompareExecStats

    kkocfb probably means:

    @OracleSK @FranckPachot @johnnyq72 it’s kernel kompile costing cardinality feedback probably. and it seems there is a trace function…

    — Frits Hoogland (@fritshoogland) January 4, 2017

    and then I’m looking for a way to get this trace. I didn’t know which event can trace that, but others know:

    @fritshoogland @OracleSK @FranckPachot @johnnyq72 are you talking about event 10507 level 512?

    — Mauro Pagano (@Mautro) January 4, 2017

    However there is another way to get an idea of the events that are checked by a function.
    The idea is described here: http://yong321.freeshell.org/computer/OracleFuncCalls.html

    Event

    We are not allowed to disassemble oracle code (this is in the licensing rules that you accept when you download oracle) so I’ll not do it here.
    If you think you have a special permission to do it, just run:
    gdb oracle <<<"disas kkocfbCheckCardEst"

    I can’t show the dissassembled code, so here is how to get the list of the events that are checked by the kkocfbCheckCardEst function:
    $ gdb oracle <<<"disas kkocfbCheckCardEst" | awk --non-decimal-data '/mov .*,%edi$/{gsub(/[$,]/," ");a=$4}/EventRdbmsErr/{printf "%d\n", a}' | sort -u
    10507

    The information we have about this event does not describe all what can be traced:

    $ oerr ora 10507
    10507, 00000, "Trace bind equivalence logic"
    // *Cause:
    // *Action:

    From that, I don’t know which level to set the event, but in case of doubt and because levels are often bit flags, you can set it to the maximum 0xFFFFFFFF:


    alter session set events '10507 trace name context forever, level 4294967295';

    trace when cardinality feedback is bypassed

    When I run the query where execution is doing less than 100 buffer gets I get the following trace with event 10507 level 512:


    ****** Begin CFB Hints (APA) [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] xsc=0x7fca901f0e30 ctx=0x9415d4f8 ******
    Dumping Hints
    =============
    *********** End CFB Hints (APA) ***********
    kkocfbInitCardFdbkCompCtx [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] monitor=y
    kkocfbCheckCardEst: No feedback for small query (BG 0.000000, CPU 0.000000 (ms)

    The message is clear: no feedback for small query. The Buffer Get and CPU show 0 but on my test case, increasing the size of the table, I have seen that 100 buffer gets is the threshold:


    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 95 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 95 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 96 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 96 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 97 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 97 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 98 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 98 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 99 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: N buffer_gets: 99 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: Y buffer_gets: 100 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: Y buffer_gets: 100 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: Y buffer_gets: 101 cpu_time: 1000
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: Y buffer_gets: 101 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: Y buffer_gets: 102 cpu_time: 0
    bq4fc1rdx97av is_reoptimizable: Y buffer_gets: 102 cpu_time: 1000

    trace when query becomes reoptimizable

    When the query reads more than 100 buffer gets, the cursor is marked as reoptimizable and here is the trace:


    ****** Begin CFB Hints (APA) [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] xsc=0x7fed7dc2ca40 ctx=0x9418f4f8 ******
    Dumping Hints
    =============
    *********** End CFB Hints (APA) ***********
    kkocfbInitCardFdbkCompCtx [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] monitor=y
    Reparsing due to card est...
    @=0x95426550 type=1 nodeid=1 monitor=Y halias="DEMO_TABLE" loc="SEL$1" act=500 min=0 est=63 next=(nil)
    kkocfbCheckCardEst [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] reparse=y ecs=n efb=n ost=n fbs=n
    *********** Begin Dump Context (kkocfbCheckCardEst) [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq cpcnt=0] ***********
    @=0x95426550 type=1 nodeid=1 monitor=Y halias="DEMO_TABLE" loc="SEL$1" act=500 min=0 est=63 next=(nil)
    *********** End Dump Context ***********

    act=500 is the actual number of rows (A-Rows) and est=63 is the estimated one (A-Rows) and this is how misestimate is detected.

    trace when reoptimized query is run again

    At that point we can see the feedback as OPT_ESTIMATE hints in v$sql_reoptimization_hints.

    When we run the same query another time, it is parsed again with those hits, fixing cardinality tho the A-Rows of previous execution.

    Here is the trace for this second execution.


    kkoarCopyCtx: [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] origin=CFB old=0x63904140 new=0x7fcda3716d40 copyCnt=1 copyClient=y
    **************************************************************
    kkocfbCopyBestEst: Best Stats
    Exec count: 1
    CR gets: 279
    CU gets: 4
    Disk Reads: 0
    Disk Writes: 0
    IO Read Requests: 0
    IO Write Requests: 0
    Bytes Read: 0
    Bytes Written: 0
    Bytes Exchanged with Storage: 0
    Bytes Exchanged with Disk: 0
    Bytes Simulated Read: 0
    Bytes Simulated Returned: 0
    Elapsed Time: 6998 (us)
    CPU Time: 2000 (us)
    User I/O Time: 0 (us)
    *********** Begin Dump Context (kkocfbCopyBestEst) **********
    *********** End Dump Context ***********
    kkocfbCopyCardCtx: oldCtx Dumping string mapping
    ----------------------
    kkocfbCopyCardCtx: newCtx Dumping string mapping
    ----------------------
    **************************************************************
    kkocfbCopyCardCtx: Best stats
    Exec count: 1
    CR gets: 279
    CU gets: 4
    Disk Reads: 0
    Disk Writes: 0
    IO Read Requests: 0
    IO Write Requests: 0
    Bytes Read: 0
    Bytes Written: 0
    Bytes Exchanged with Storage: 0
    Bytes Exchanged with Disk: 0
    Bytes Simulated Read: 0
    Bytes Simulated Returned: 0
    Elapsed Time: 6998 (us)
    CPU Time: 2000 (us)
    User I/O Time: 0 (us)
    **** Begin Dump Context (kkocfbCopyCardCtx - best est) ****
    ********************* End Dump Context ********************
    *********** Begin Dump Context (Copy:old) [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq cpcnt=0] ***********
    @=0x6446dc58 type=1 nodeid=1 monitor=Y halias="DEMO_TABLE" loc="SEL$1" act=500 min=0 est=63 next=(nil)
    *********** End Dump Context ***********
    *********** Begin Dump Context (Copy:new) [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq cpcnt=0] ***********
    @=0x7fcda3716a78 type=1 nodeid=1 monitor=Y halias="DEMO_TABLE" loc="SEL$1" act=500 min=0 est=63 next=(nil)
    *********** End Dump Context ***********
    kkoarReparse: xsc=0x7fcda3672b98 kxsAutoReoptCtx=0x7fcda3716d40
    kkocfbAddCardHints: Dumping string mapping
    ----------------------
    ******** Begin CFB Hints [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] xsc=0x7fcda3672b98 ********
    Dumping Hints
    =============
    atom_hint=(@=0x7fcda37831e8 err=0 resol=0 used=0 token=1018 org=6 lvl=3 txt=OPT_ESTIMATE (@"SEL$1" TABLE "DEMO_TABLE"@"SEL$1" ROWS=500.000000 ) )
    ********** End CFB Hints **********

    You can see the OPT_ESTIMATE hints here.


    ****** Begin CFB Hints (APA) [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] xsc=0x7fcda3672b98 ctx=0x8a274118 ******
    Dumping Hints
    =============
    atom_hint=(@=0x7fcda37831e8 err=0 resol=1 used=0 token=1018 org=6 lvl=3 txt=OPT_ESTIMATE (@"SEL$1" TABLE "DEMO_TABLE"@"SEL$1" ROWS=500.000000 ) )
    atom_hint=(@=0x7fcda3782d10 err=0 resol=1 used=0 token=1018 org=6 lvl=3 txt=OPT_ESTIMATE (@"SEL$1" TABLE "DEMO_TABLE"@"SEL$1" ROWS=500.000000 ) )
    *********** End CFB Hints (APA) ***********
    kkocfbInitCardFdbkCompCtx [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] monitor=y
    **************************************************************
    kkocfbCopyBestEst: Best Stats
    Exec count: 1
    CR gets: 279
    CU gets: 4
    Disk Reads: 0
    Disk Writes: 0
    IO Read Requests: 0
    IO Write Requests: 0
    Bytes Read: 0
    Bytes Written: 0
    Bytes Exchanged with Storage: 0
    Bytes Exchanged with Disk: 0
    Bytes Simulated Read: 0
    Bytes Simulated Returned: 0
    Elapsed Time: 6998 (us)
    CPU Time: 2000 (us)
    User I/O Time: 0 (us)
    *********** Begin Dump Context (kkocfbCopyBestEst) **********
    *********** End Dump Context ***********
    kkocfbCheckCardEst [sql_id=a71qw8t17qpqq] reparse=n ecs=n efb=y ost=n fbs=n

    So what?

    With those adaptive feature it is good to be able to trace the decisions in order to understand and reproduce the problems we encounter. Event 10507 is very useful. It’s the execution time counterpart for the event 10053 which explains compile time decision. And in latest versions, the optimizer is more and more present at execution time.

    We have always seen problems coming from cardinality feedback. Most of them are coming from bad statistics or a data model where there is not one optimal access plan. Then the CBO is always trying to find better and sometimes the best is the enemy of the good.
    Now in 12.2 you have a very good way to avoid the cardinality feedback side effect: tune your queries and your data model so that the critical queries read less than 100 logical reads.

     

    Cet article 12cR2: no cardinality feedback for small queries est apparu en premier sur Blog dbi services.

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