Security Blogs

PeteFinnigan.com In The Top 60 Oracle Database Blogs

Pete Finnigan - Tue, 2017-04-11 04:46
I got a couple of emails over the last couple of weeks from Anuj at FeedSpot to tell me that my blog (This Oracle Security blog) has been listed in the top 60 Oracle Database blogs on the Feedspot website....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 11/04/17 At 09:37 AM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Web Services Security: Authentication and Authorization

This is the seventh posting in a blog series summarizing the new Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and web services functionality and recommendations for securing them.

Once traffic is accepted and passed by the URL Firewall, WebLogic initiates the standard Oracle E-Business Suite authentication and authorization procedures. Web services are authenticated and authorized no differently than for end-users.

Authorization rules for web services are relatively easy to configure in that all web services are defined as functions. The Oracle E-Business Suite's function security scheme and rules engine apply the same to GUI forms as for web services. In other words, the table APPLSYS.FND_FORM_FUNCTIONS defines all the forms that users use as well as defines all web services deployed. Menus then are built referencing these functions and Oracle E-Business Suite user accounts (APPLSYS.FND_USER) are given responsibilities with the menus of functions. These user accounts can be staff members or can be generic accounts (e.g. to support specific web services). Ensuring that appropriate users and responsibilities can call and use specific web services is the same critical step as ensuring that only appropriate users can use specific forms.

There are two authentication options for web services, local FND_USER passwords and tokens. Tokens can be SAML send vouchers/E-Business Suite Session Ids). Whichever is used, ensure that accounts are not inappropriately over privileged and the passwords and tokens not widely known and/or shared.

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 
 
 
 
 
Web Services, DMZ/External, Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Oracle Security Training Manuals For Sale

Pete Finnigan - Wed, 2017-04-05 20:26
I had a reason today to go to our company storage for something today and whilst moving other things around to find what I needed I discovered two A4 boxes with printed manuals for some of our recent training classes....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 05/04/17 At 02:22 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle Listener Security New ORACLE 12.2 Firewall Feature

Service-Level ALCs is a new feature of the 12.2 Listener that allows every database service to have its own ACL. The ACL must be based on IP addresses and this feature allows multitenant pluggable databases (PDBs) to each have an ACL enforced by the Listener. This is because each PDB is a unique service registered in the Listener.

To implement this feature a new parameter FIREWALL must be used and has the following options:

  • (FIREWALL=ON) - This enables strict ACL validation (whitelist-based approach) of all connections based on the ACLs. If no ACLs are configured for a service, all connections are rejected.
  • FIREWALL is not set (defined for service) – This is a mixed mode. If an ACL is configured for a service, it will be enforced. If no ACL is defined, all connections will be accepted.
  • (FIREWALL=OFF) No validation (No ACLs enforced) and all connections are accepted

For more information refer to: http://docs.oracle.com/database/122/NETAG/configuring-and-administering-oracle-net-listener.htm#NETAG0102

If you have questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

 
 
Security Strategy and Standards, Oracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

How to Perform a Security Audit of an Oracle Database Training in Athens, Greece

Pete Finnigan - Wed, 2017-04-05 02:06
I will be teaching my two days class How to Perform a Security Audit of an Oracle Database in Athens, Greece on May 16th and 17th 2017 organised by Oracle University. This is a great class that helps you understand....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 04/04/17 At 02:45 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle Database Listener Security Guide – Rewritten For Oracle 12.2

In October 2002 Integrigy first posted a guide to securing the Oracle Listener. Since then this whitepaper has been our most popular download. This month we rewrote the whitepaper for Oracle 12c, inclusive of 12.2

Integrigy Consulting has found the Database Listener to be one of the most frequently overlooked security risks at customers. This whitepaper is an overview of the Database Listener, its unique security risks, and step-by-step recommendations for securing it are provided.

If you have questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 
 
Security Strategy and Standards, Oracle Database
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Is SQL Injection A WebSite Problem?

Pete Finnigan - Fri, 2017-03-31 12:06
I saw a post on RobLockards Facebook page this week where he said some people have suggested that his SQL Injection talk only shows calling a procedure from SQLCl and not a web page and he suggests that he may....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 31/03/17 At 03:38 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Oracle E-Business Suite Mobile and Web Services Security Explained - Starting with URL Firewall

This is the sixth posting in a blog series summarizing the new Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and web services functionality and recommendations for securing them.

How are web services secured in Oracle 12.2? To start at the beginning, the “front door” of the Oracle E-Business Suite is its web server, the Apache server deployed within the WebLogic server that is installed with release 12.2. To secure an Apache web server largely requires setting various configurations in the Apache configuration file (httpd.conf). For the Oracle E-Business Suite, these critical settings are maintained by Oracle through the AutoConfig utility. 

URL Firewall

The most important setting for Internet-facing clients is the include for the Oracle E-Business Suite’s URL Firewall. When the URL Firewall is included in the httpd.conf, every web request is passed through the URL Firewall, both for forms and for web services. The URL Firewall is non-discretionary and mandatory requirement when the Oracle E-Business Suite is deployed on the Internet.

HTTPD.CONF include for the URL Firewall

The URL Firewall is a template maintained by Oracle that whitelists those forms (e.g. JSP pages) that Oracle Corporation has hardened for use on the Internet. If the JSP is not listed “whitelisted” in the file url_fw.conf it should NOT be used on the Internet. Be sure to use the latest version of the template as Oracle periodically updates the template.

In the template, Oracle comments out all lines which effectively “Denies All.” To use the url_fw.conf, DBAs at each client site need to manually uncomment (“open”) specific JSP pages appropriate to their site. This “opening” by the DBAs must be carefully done and routinely reviewed.

The mechanics of when the url_fw.conf is called or not is determined by the Node's trust level. Most large Oracle E-Business Suite implementations have multiple web servers (referred to as nodes). To deploy the Oracle E-Business Suite on the Internet, one ore more nodes are deployed in a DMZ. If the node making the request of the Apache web server is flagged as an "Internal" web node, the url_fw.conf is skipped. If however the Node's trust level is flagged as "External" because the node is deployed in the DMZ, the url_fw.conf is called.

When called, the url_fw.conf applies regular expressions to the web request to determine if the request is BOTH exists in the whitelist and has been uncommented “opened” by the DBAs. If no match is found, a default-deny result is returned. In security terms, this means all requests are rejected unless explicitly allowed. If a match is found, the web request continues and the WebLogic server will then proceed with authentication and authorization tasks.

Example of URL FW line uncommented

Enabling and configuring the URL Firewall is the first step in securing web services. Unfortunately, Oracle buries the documentation for the URL Firewall in Appendix E of DMZ configuration guide – see the reference section of this paper for more information on the documentation.

To secure web services, it gets more complicated in that a second whitelist is appended to the first. To secure Oracle E-Business Suite web services, the url_fw.conf calls the url_fw_ws.conf. Similar to the configuration of the url_fw.conf, the documentation is buried deep in Appendix E of the DMZ configuration guide.

Different than the url_fw.conf which is supplied as a static listing of JSP pages, a utility (txkGenWebServiceUrlFwConf.pl) is run to generate the file url_fw_ws.conf. After being generated, DBAs similarly need to manually uncomment only those lines for the web services being used. If a web service is not found to be whitelisted, a default-deny rule will be applied; all web services commented out will be denied.

Example of URL FW WS.conf

Errors in selecting a Node’s trust level and configuring either the url_fw.conf and/or the url_fw_ws.conf have serious security consequences and should be routinely reviewed as part of on-going security audits.

Web services can be publically deployed without using the URL Firewall. For example, clients can if they so choose route Internet traffic directly to the E-Business Suite without setting up an External node. Integrigy Corporation highly recommends against doing this. Integrigy Corporation highly recommends always using the URL Firewall when deployed on the Internet, both for forms and for web services.

URL Firewall called by Node Trust Level

httpd.conf calls the URL Firewall

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

 
 
 
 
 
Web Services, DMZ/External, Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Creditcard and Bank Account Decryption No Longer Possible in Oracle E-Business Suite

In January 2014 Integrigy published extensive research and recommendations on how best to secure credit cards and bank accounts within the Oracle E-Business Suite. This research is available here Oracle E-Business Suite: Credit Cards and PCI Compliance

With Release 12 of the Oracle E-Business Suite, Oracle consolidated into the new Payments module, new functionality to encrypt credit cards and external bank accounts. Integrigy’s recommendation in January 2014 was that if encryption was enabled, that the concurrent programs to optionally decrypt credit cards and external bank accounts also be disabled. Integrigy's rationale for this recommendation was that decryption should only be allowed in a carefully controlled and managed process. End-dating the decryption request set and concurrent programs would prevent the decryption programs from being run accidently or run for nefarious purposes – in production but certainly in non-production databases.

Evidently, Oracle is now once again taking a security recommendation from Integrigy by permanently disabling the decryption programs. Per Oracle’s security team, the decryption programs have been disabled. For more information refer to Oracle Support Note 2209450.1, posted December 1, 2016 - "Is It Possible To Decrypt the Bank Accounts Data After Enabling The Encryption Feature."

If you have questions about protecting credit cards and/or external bank accounts in the Oracle E-Business Suite or have questions about this blog post, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 
 
 
Encryption, PCI, Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Deploying Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 SOAP Web Services

This is the fifth posting in a blog series summarizing the new Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and web services functionality and recommendations for securing them.

Physically deploying SOAP-based web services for the Oracle E-Business Suite is more complicated than for REST. SOAP interfaces are best used to support heavy-duty solutions such as Business-to-Business (B2B) interfaces. To deploy SOAP services for the Oracle E-Business Suite, the Oracle SOA Suite must be licensed and configured. Once the SOA Suite is installed and configured, two (2) WebLogic servers will exist. The first WebLogic server is the initial WebLogic server supporting the Oracle E-Business Suite and the second WebLogic Server is the WebLogic server supporting the SOA Suite. Integration between the two WebLogic Servers is done through both through HTTP and the ISG client. The ISG client is installed on the SOA Suite’s WebLogic server and uses Oracle’s proprietary T3 protocol to do the majority of the heavy lifting for communication with the E-Business Suite.

When a SOAP service is deployed within the Integrated SOA Gateway forms in the Oracle E-Business Suite, the SOAP Web Services Description Language (WDSL) file defining the web service is generated on the second WebLogic Server, the SOA Suite WebLogic Server, not the E-Business Suite’s WebLogic server. The interaction with B2B business partners using the web service then occurs between the Oracle SOA Suite and the business partner’s servers. Ultimately the Oracle E-Business Suite generates or receives the information, but the Oracle E-Business Suite does not directly communicate with the B2B partners.

SOAP Needs a Separate SOA Suite WebLogic Server

Only the SOA Suite communicates with B2B clients

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Web Services, DMZ/External, Oracle E-Business Suite
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Can You Say That An Oracle Database is nn% secure?

Pete Finnigan - Thu, 2017-03-23 21:26
I often get this type of question from customers and also from people I speak to and even a few times by email. The question is "can you tell us how secure our database is?", is it 10% secure, is....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 23/03/17 At 03:22 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

PFCLScan - A Security Scanner For Oracle Databases - New Website

Pete Finnigan - Thu, 2017-03-23 03:06
Our software product PFCLScan can be used to assess your Oracle databases for security issues that could make your data vulnerable to loss or attack. PFCLScan initially had its own website, PFCLScan.com but since the restyle and redesign of our....[Read More]

Posted by Pete On 22/03/17 At 08:24 PM

Categories: Security Blogs

Integrigy COLLABORATE 17 Sessions - Presentations on Oracle Database, Oracle E-Business Suite, and PeopleSoft Security

Integrigy is presenting nine papers this year at COLLABORATE 17 (https://collaborate.oaug.org/). The COLLABORATE 17 conference is a joint conference for the Oracle Applications User Group (OAUG), Independent Oracle Users Group (IOUG), and Quest International Users Group.

Here is our schedule. If you have questions or would like to meet with us while at COLLABORTE 17, please conact us at info@integrigy.com.

Sunday Apr 02, 2017

1:45 PM - 2:45 PM

Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Security Enhancements

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5621519

Banyan E

Speaker: Stephen Kost

1:45 PM - 2:45 PM

How to Control and Secure Your DBAs and Developers in Oracle E- Business Suite

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5740411

South Seas F

Speaker: Michael Miller

Monday Apr 03, 2017

9:45 AM - 10:45 AM

The Thrifty DBA Does Database Security

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5660960

Jasmine D

Speaker: Stephen Kost

1:00 PM - 4:30 PM

Integrigy team available for meetings and discussions Contacts us at info@integrigy.com to arrange

 

 

Tuesday Apr 04, 2017

9:45 AM - 10:45 AM

Solving Application Security Challenges with Database Vault

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5660961

Jasmine D

Speaker: Stephen Kost

1:00 PM - 4:30 PM

Integrigy team available for meetings and discussions Contacts us at info@integrigy.com to arrange

 

 

Wednesday Apr 05, 2017

9:45 AM - 10:45 AM

When You Can't Apply Database Security Patches

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5660962

Jasmine D

Speaker: Stephen Kost

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Common Mistakes When Deploying Oracle E-Business Suite to the Internet

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5621520

South Seas B

Speaker: Stephen Kost

1:30 PM - 2:30 PM

Securing Oracle 12c Multitenant Pluggable Databases

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5660950

Palm A

 

Speaker: Michael Miller

2:45 PM - 3:45 PM

How to Control and Secure Your DBAs and Developers in PeopleSoft

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5617942

Ballroom  J

Speaker: Michael Miller

Thursday Apr 06, 2017

8:30 AM - 9:30 AM

Oracle E-Business Suite Mobile and Web Services Security

https://app.attendcollaborate.com/event/member?item_id=5621407

South Seas B

Speaker: Michael Miller

 

You can download a complete listing of Integrigy's sessions at Integrigy COLLABORATE 17 Sessions.

Oracle Database, Oracle E-Business Suite, Oracle PeopleSoft
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

PeopleSoft Security

This is a quick summary of Integrigy’s latest research on PeopleSoft. Was sending this to a client and decided it was a good posting:

Guide to PeopleSoft Logging and Auditing

How to Control and Secure PeopleSoft DBAs and Developers

PeopleSoft Database Security

PeopleSoft Database Secure Baseline Configuration

PeopleSoft Security Quick Reference

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

 

 
 
Oracle PeopleSoft, Whitepaper
Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

Deploying Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 REST Web Services

This is the forth posting in a blog series summarizing the new Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and web services functionality and recommendations for securing them.

Physically deploying REST services with 12.2 is straightforward. REST is an architectural style and not a protocol and is best used to support lightweight and “chatty” interfaces such as Mobile applications.  With 12.2, REST Web Application Description Language (WADL) interface definition files are generated within the E-Business Suite's WebLogic server and run through the OAFM Application. The OAFM application created with the installation of the Oracle E-Business Suite.

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

-Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

References
 

 

     
     
     
     
     
     
    Web Services, DMZ/External, Oracle E-Business Suite
    Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

    Validating The Length Of An Oracle Database Hashed password?

    Pete Finnigan - Thu, 2017-03-16 06:06
    Q: Can I validate the length of a password in the Oracle database from the password hash? I have been asked this question a number of times over the years. Even someone emailed me to confirm the answer to this....[Read More]

    Posted by Pete On 15/03/17 At 07:52 PM

    Categories: Security Blogs

    Default Password Hashes for 11g Oracle Database

    Pete Finnigan - Tue, 2017-03-14 17:26
    I often get Oracle Security related questions from people randomly sent to my inbox or occasionally on Social media and less on on this sites forum. I get questions on average probably 4 times per week in these ways. I....[Read More]

    Posted by Pete On 14/03/17 At 06:16 PM

    Categories: Security Blogs

    Deploying Oracle E-Business Suite Web Services

    This is the third posting in a blog series summarizing the new Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and web services functionality and recommendations for securing them.

    Web services are physically deployed differently depending on whether they are defined using Representational State Transfer (REST) or Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).  Logically, however, both REST and SOAP web services are deployed from within the Integrated SOA Gateway (ISG). Refer to the E-Business Suite’s documentation for details, but from within the Integrated SOA Gateway, users can deploy web services by locating the particular web service and then clicking on the "Deploy" button.

    If you have any questions, please contact us at info@integrigy.com

    -Michael Miller, CISSP-ISSMP, CCSP, CCSK

    References
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Web Services, DMZ/External, Oracle E-Business Suite
    Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

    Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and Web Services Architecture

    This is the second posting in a blog series summarizing the new Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2 Mobile and web services functionality and recommendations for securing them.

    Approximately 2,900 web services are created with an update to or installation of 12.2 and are defined in the table APPLSYS.FND_IREP_CLASSES. Within the Oracle E-Business Suite’s user interface, the Integrated SOA Gateway (ISG) module is used to deploy the web services defined in APPLSYS.FND_IREP_CLASSES. Key to understanding the 12.2 web services architecture is that ALL web services are defined in the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Gateway, this includes both Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and Representational State Transfer (REST) web services. 

    The E-Business Suite’s Mobile and smartphone applications are deployed internally as REST services and are likewise defined in the Integrated SOA Gateway and stored in the table APPLSYS.FND_IREP_CLASSES. The graphic below depicts the addition of web services and helps to visualize the increased attack surface that needs to be secured.

     
     
    Web Services, DMZ/External, Oracle E-Business Suite
    Categories: APPS Blogs, Security Blogs

    12.2 is Available For Download For Linux And Solaris

    Pete Finnigan - Thu, 2017-03-02 11:06
    The Oracle database 12.2 has been available on the cloud for some time but it has not been available for download so that you can install it on your own servers or virtual Machines. You can download from OTN or....[Read More]

    Posted by Pete On 02/03/17 At 09:10 AM

    Categories: Security Blogs

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