DBA Blogs

Oracle's Linux Contributions

Sergio's Blog - Fri, 2009-01-09 06:40

This recently posted page summarizes some of the contributions Oracle's Linux developers make to Linux and the community in general, including:

  • OCFS2
  • Libstdc++
  • NFS on IPv6
  • RDS
  • T10-DIF Data Integrity
  • Etc.

I speak with prospects, customers, and partners on a regular basis and when I tell them that we have people at Oracle who's sole job it is to work on open source software, they are often very surprised. I'm glad this was posted.

Categories: DBA Blogs

Plan regressions got you down? SQL Plan Management to the rescue!

Inside the Oracle Optimizer - Thu, 2009-01-08 17:58
Part 1 of 4: Creating SQL plan baselines

Do you ever experience performance regressions because an execution plan has changed for the worse? If you have, then we have an elegant solution for you in 11g called SQL Plan Management (SPM). The next four posts on our blog will cover SPM in detail. Let's begin by reviewing the primary causes for plan changes.

Execution plan changes occur due to various system changes. For example, you might have (manually or automatically) updated statistics for some objects, or changed a few optimizer-related parameters. A more dramatic change is a database upgrade (say from 10gR2 to 11g). All of these changes have the potential to cause new execution plans to be generated for many of your SQL statements. Most new plans are obviously improvements because they are tailored to the new system environment, but some might be worse leading to performance regressions. It is the latter that cause sleepless nights for many DBAs.

DBAs have several options for addressing these regressions. However, what most DBAs want is simple: plans should only change when they will result in performance gains. In other words, the optimizer should not pick bad plans, period.

This first post in our series, describes the concepts of SQL Plan Management and how to create SQL plan baselines. The second part will describe how and when these SQL plan baselines are used. The third part will discuss evolution, the process of adding new and improved plans to SQL plan baselines. Finally, the fourth part will describe user interfaces and interactions with other Oracle objects (like stored outlines).


SQL Plan Management (SPM) allows database users to maintain stable yet optimal performance for a set of SQL statements. SPM incorporates the positive attributes of plan adaptability and plan stability, while simultaneously avoiding their shortcomings. It has two main objectives:
  1. prevent performance regressions in the face of database system changes
  2. offer performance improvements by gracefully adapting to database system changes
A managed SQL statement is one for which SPM has been enabled. SPM can be configured to work automatically or it can be manually controlled either wholly or partially (described later). SPM helps prevent performance regressions by enabling the detection of plan changes for managed SQL statements. For this purpose, SPM maintains, on disk, a plan history consisting of different execution plans generated for each managed SQL statement. An enhanced version of the Oracle optimizer, called SPM aware optimizer, accesses, uses, and manages this information which is stored in a repository called the SQL Management Base (SMB).

The plan history enables the SPM aware optimizer to determine whether the best-cost plan it has produced using the cost-based method is a brand new plan or not. A brand new plan represents a plan change that has potential to cause performance regression. For this reason, the SPM aware optimizer does not choose a brand new best-cost plan. Instead, it chooses from a set of accepted plans. An accepted plan is one that has been either verified to not cause performance regression or designated to have good performance. A set of accepted plans is called a SQL plan baseline, which represents a subset of the plan history.

A brand new plan is added to the plan history as a non-accepted plan. Later, an SPM utility verifies its performance, and keeps it as a non-accepted plan if it will cause a performance regression, or changes it to an accepted plan if it will provide a performance improvement. The plan performance verification process ensures both plan stability and plan adaptability.

The figure below shows the SMB containing the plan history for three SQL statements. Each plan history contains some accepted plans (the SQL plan baseline) and some non-accepted plans.

(Click on the image for a larger view.)

You can create a SQL plan baseline in several ways: using a SQL Tuning Set (STS); from the cursor cache; exporting from one database and importing into another; and automatically for every statement. Let's look at each in turn. The examples in this blog entry use the Oracle Database Sample Schemas so you can try them yourself.

Creating SQL plan baselines from STS

If you are upgrading from 10gR2 or have an 11g test system, you might already have an STS containing some or all of your SQL statements. This STS might contain plans that perform satisfactorily. Let's call this STS MY_STS. You can create a SQL plan baseline from this STS as follows:

SQL> variable pls number;
SQL> exec :pls := dbms_spm.load_plans_from_sqlset(sqlset_name => 'MY_STS', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp basic_filter => 'sql_text like ''select%p.prod_name%''');

This will create SQL plan baselines for all statements that match the specified filter.

Creating SQL plan baselines from cursor cache

You can automatically create SQL plan baselines for any cursor that is currently in the cache as follows:

SQL> exec :pls := dbms_spm.load_plans_from_cursor_cache( -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp attribute_name => 'SQL_TEXT', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp attribute_value => 'select%p.prod_name%');

This will create SQL plan baselines for all statements whose text matches the specified string. Several overloaded variations of this function allow you to filter on other cursor attributes.

Creating SQL plan baselines using a staging table

If you already have SQL plan baselines (say on an 11g test system), you can export them to another system (a production system for instance).

First, on the test system, create a staging table and pack the SQL plan baselines you want to export:

SQL> exec dbms_spm.create_stgtab_baseline(table_name => 'MY_STGTAB', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp table_owner => 'SH');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec :pls := dbms_spm.pack_stgtab_baseline( -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp table_name => 'MY_STGTAB', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp table_owner => 'SH', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp sql_text => 'select%p.prod_name%');

This will pack all SQL plan baselines for statements that match the specified filter. The staging table, MY_STGTAB, is a regular table that you should export to the production system using Datapump Export.

On the production system, you can now unpack the staging table to create the SQL plan baselines:

SQL> exec :pls := dbms_spm.unpack_stgtab_baseline( -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp table_name => 'MY_STGTAB', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp table_owner => 'SH', -
>&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp sql_text => 'select%p.prod_name%');

This will unpack the staging table and create SQL plan baselines. Note that the filter for unpacking the staging table is optional and may be different than the one used during packing. This means that you can pack several SQL plan baselines into a staging table and selectively unpack only a subset of them on the target system.

Creating SQL plan baselines automatically

You can create SQL plan baselines for all repeatable statements automatically by setting the parameter optimizer_capture_sql_plan_baselines to TRUE (default is FALSE). The first plan captured for any statement is automatically accepted and becomes part of the SQL plan baseline, so enable this parameter only when you are sure that the default plans are performing well.

You can use the automatic plan capture mode when you have upgraded from a previous database version. Set optimizer_features_enable to the earlier version and execute your workload. Every repeatable statement will have its plan captured thus creating SQL plan baselines. You can reset optimizer_features_enable to its default value after you are sure that all statements in your workload have had a chance to execute.

Note that this automatic plan capture occurs only for repeatable statements, that is, statements that are executed at least twice. Statements that are only executed once will not benefit from SQL plan baselines since accepted plans are only used in subsequent hard parses.

The following example shows a plan being captured automatically when the same statement is executed twice:

SQL> alter session set optimizer_capture_sql_plan_baselines = true;

Session altered.

SQL> var pid number
SQL> exec :pid := 100;

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select p.prod_name, s.amount_sold, t.calendar_year
2&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp from sales s, products p, times t
3&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp where s.prod_id = p.prod_id
4&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp and s.time_id = t.time_id
5&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp and p.prod_id < :pid;

--------- ----------- -------------
9 rows selected.

SQL> select p.prod_name, s.amount_sold, t.calendar_year
2&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp from sales s, products p, times t
3&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp where s.prod_id = p.prod_id
4&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp and s.time_id = t.time_id
5&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp and p.prod_id < :pid;

--------- ----------- -------------
9 rows selected.

SQL> alter session set optimizer_capture_sql_plan_baselines = false;

Session altered.

Automatic plan capture will not occur for a statement if a stored outline exists for it and is enabled and the parameter use_stored_outlines is TRUE. In this case, turn on incremental capture of plans into an STS using the function capture_cursor_cache_sqlset() in the DBMS_SQLTUNE package. After you have collected the plans for your workload into the STS, manually create SQL plan baselines using the method described earlier. Then, disable the stored outlines or set use_stored_outlines to FALSE. From now on, SPM will manage your workload and stored outlines will not be used for those statements.

In this article, we have seen how to create SQL plan baselines. In the next, we will describe the SPM aware optimizer and how it uses SQL plan baselines.

Categories: DBA Blogs, Development

NEW option in ADRCI purge acommand - UTSCDMP

Virag Sharma - Wed, 2008-12-31 11:40

NEW option in ADRCI purge acommand - UTSCDMP
There is new option in ADRCI for purge command - UTSCDMP

adrci> help purge

Usage: PURGE [[-i ]

Purpose: Purge the diagnostic data in the current ADR home. If no
option is specified, the default purging policy will be used.

[-i id1 id1 id2]: Users can input a single incident ID, or a range of incidents to purge.
[-age ]: Users can specify the purging policy either to all the diagnostic data or the specified type. The data older than ago will be purged


Users can specify what type of data to be purged.

purge -i 123 456
purge -age 60 -type incident

There where some issue that directories cdmp_* in repositories (=$diagnostic_dest/Diag/rdbms/database_name/instance_name/bdump ) are not purging automatically. When you run following command, it remove cdmp_* directories, which is older the 3600 Minutes

adrci> purge -age 3600 -type UTSCDMP

Categories: DBA Blogs

Free Oracle Enterprise Linux Downloads Now Also in DVD Format

Sergio's Blog - Mon, 2008-11-17 03:32

In a previous post, I mentioned that DVDs of Oracle Enterprise Linux are only availably for purchase via the Unbreakable Linux Store. I was incorrect. As of Oracle Enterprise Linux 4, Update 7, we now offer DVDs as a free download.


Categories: DBA Blogs

Quick and Dirty Inline Charts and RATIO_TO_REPORT

Sergio's Blog - Fri, 2008-10-24 02:54

Another post from the archives...

HTML Expressions is a feature in the Application Express reporting engine that lets you apply an HTML mask to a column value in a report. In the HTML Expression, you refer to the column value using #COLUMN_NAME#. Recently, I saw this used to create neat inline bar charts like the one below:


To create this example, I used the following query based on the Issue Tracker data model:

select pname, 
       ratio_to_report (cnt_issues) over () * 100 issues_chart,
       round (ratio_to_report (cnt_issues) over () * 100, 1) issues_ratio
  from (
select p.person_name pname, count(*) cnt_issues 
  from ht_issues i, ht_people p
 where i.assigned_to = p.person_id
 group by p.person_name

I then edited the column attritbues for the ISSUES_CHART column and placed the following HTML in the the HTML Expression field:

<div style="width:100px;height:14px;background:#dddddd;
border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa;border-left:1px solid #aaaaaa;
border-bottom:1px solid #ffffff;border-right:1px solid #ffffff;">
<img src="/i/1px_trans.gif" width="#ISSUES_CHART#" height="14" border="0" style="background:#3f863f;"></div>

In this HTML with CSS style declarations, the width:100px in the beginning controls the maximum length in pixels of each bar in the chart and background:#dddddd makes the background grey. The width="#ISSUES_CHART#" controls the actual length of the green part of the bar by using the value of issues_chart from the result set.

Categories: DBA Blogs

Installing oracle-validated from an Oracle Enterprise Linux DVD using yum

Sergio's Blog - Wed, 2008-10-22 08:10

In an earlier post, I mentioned that the Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2 installation media have the oracle-validated RPM on it. The same is true for the Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7 media.

If you don't have access to ULN, and you want to install oracle-validated including its dependencies, here's a quick way to set up yum to use an Oracle Enterprise Linux DVD that doesn't require copying all RPMs from the DVD. I performed the following steps using Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, Update 2 x86-64, as root:

  1. # mkdir /media/disk
  2. Insert EL5.2 DVD (or attach to your Oracle VM guest)
  3. # mount /dev/cdrom /media/disk
  4. Edit /etc/yum.conf, adding the following section:
    [EL5.2 DVD]
    name = Enterprise Linux 5.2 DVD
  5. # yum install oracle-validated

Note that edelivery.oracle.com/linux offers only free CD downloads of Oracle Enterprise Linux. The Unbreakable Linux Store. has DVDs for a nominal (shipping only) fee. DVDs are available as a free download starting with Oracle Enterprise Linux 4, Update 7. All other releases and updates can be for a nominal (shipping only) fee.

Oracle Open World follow up

Inside the Oracle Optimizer - Tue, 2008-10-14 15:40
We were delighted to see so many people turn up for our Open World session - Inside the 11g Optimizer - so early on Tuesday morning! A lot of people have been asking where they can find more information on the topics covered especially the demos that were shown. You can find similar worked examples for most of the new 11g Optimizer features on the Oracle By Example website. You can also get more information on SQL Plan Management in the following white paper. Our blog entry from December 2007 has more information on Adaptive Cursor Sharing while the January 2008 entry gives more details on the enhancements made to statistics. We hope you enjoyed Oracle Open World as much as we did!
Categories: DBA Blogs, Development

SQL Developer Data Modeling Update

Jared Still - Mon, 2008-10-13 11:56
Oracle has released an 'early adopter' version of the the data modeling enhancements to SQL Developer.

See the OTN article for details.

I haven't tried it yet, it will be interesting to see just how well it works.
Categories: DBA Blogs

AIOUG - TechNight in Bangalore

Virag Sharma - Mon, 2008-10-06 23:27

The All India Oracle User Group with a 4 lakh -strong developer base and a community of seven-lakh users in India is organising a second meeting in Bangalore on
October 22 to share experiences and provide insights into shape of things to come. It is the second largest technology network of professionals for Oracle after the US. Soon these TechNights will be held in other parts of India, such as Pune, Mumbai and Delhi.

Like several successful Oracle user groups around the world, AIOUG is also a not for profit organization formed by Oracle users for Oracle users. Let’s join hands across the country to make AIOUG a global lead user group.

AIOUG first TechNight held at Hyderabad, Please click here to see TechNight pictures
Categories: DBA Blogs

Undocumented Oracle Functions

Jared Still - Wed, 2008-10-01 18:58
Undocumented functions in Oracle are always fun, and you just may find something useful.

The caveat of course is that they are undocumented. They can change without notice between releases or patch levels, so building apps that depend on them may be unwise.

They are often quite useful from a DBA perspective when used in SQL scripts.

Here are a few that I've played with. These are all found in Oracle

These functions have one thing in common - they have a prefix of SYS_OP_

Some of these appear to be identical to documented functions.

I don't know of any official explanation regarding the purpose of undocumented functions that seem to mimic documented functions. It could be that the source for the documented functions are separate from those that are documented, ensuring that functionality will not change for an undocumented function that is used in the Oracle kernel, even though its documented doppelganger may change in future releases.

In any case, undocumented functions are always interesting, and here are a few to play with.

Just keep in mind that these are undocumented, and as such may change or disappear entirely in future releases

sys_op_vacand - Return the binary AND of two raw values. Results are in hex

SELECT sys_op_vecand(hextoraw('FF'),hextoraw('FE')) from dual;

16:13:12 SQL>SELECT sys_op_vecand(hextoraw('C3'),hextoraw('7E')) from dual;

sys_op_vecor - Return the binary OR of two raw values. Results are in hex

16:14:39 SQL>SELECT sys_op_vecor(hextoraw('FF'),hextoraw('FE')) from dual;

sys_op_vecxor - Return the binary XOR of two raw values. Results are in hex

16:14:39 SQL>SELECT sys_op_vecor(hextoraw('FF'),hextoraw('FE')) from dual;

sys_op_vecbit - Return the value of the bit at position N in a raw value

The return value is 0 or 1

This is an interesting function as it can be used to determine the value of bits in a number. If for instance some flags are stored in a bit vector and you need to know the value of the 3 bit, this is an easy way to do it.

I believe the upper limit on the number of bits is 127.

define decnum=10
prompt &&decnum dec = 1010 bin

16:16:27 SQL>select 'Bit 0 is ' || sys_op_vecbit(SYS_OP_NUMTORAW(&&decnum),0) from dual;
Bit 0 is 0

16:16:27 SQL>select 'Bit 1 is ' || sys_op_vecbit(SYS_OP_NUMTORAW(&&decnum),1) from dual;
Bit 1 is 1

16:16:27 SQL>select 'Bit 2 is ' || sys_op_vecbit(SYS_OP_NUMTORAW(&&decnum),2) from dual;
Bit 2 is 0

16:16:27 SQL>select 'Bit 3 is ' || sys_op_vecbit(SYS_OP_NUMTORAW(&&decnum),3) from dual;
Bit 3 is 1

sys_op_bitvec - This appears to be for used to build a bit vector, but I haven't figured out
how to use it. Please let me know if you do.

sys_op_map_nonnull - This has been thouroughly discussed on Eddie Awad's blog:
sys_op_map_nonnull discussion

sys_op_descend - Returns value as it would be used in a descending index. This is essentially
reverse() function with output in hex.

16:32:41 SQL>select sys_op_descend('ABC') from dual;

sys_op_undescend - The inverse of sys_op_descend. Well, almost

17:12:59 SQL>select sys_op_undescend(sys_op_descend('ABC')) from dual
17:12:59 2 /


Notice the output is in the original order, but in decimal rather than hex.

sys_op_dump - dump the data from an ADT/UDT (Abtract/User Data Type)

16:54:13 2 last_name varchar2(30),
16:54:13 3 first_name varchar2(30),
16:54:13 4 id number(6)
16:54:13 5 )
16:54:13 6 /
16:54:13 SQL>
16:54:13 SQL>
16:54:13 SQL>select sys_op_dump(my_adt('still','jared',234987)) from dual;


I don't use objects in the database, but this would likely be useful for someone that does.

sys_op_guid - this appears to be identical to sys_guid

17:00:50 SQL>select sys_guid(), sys_op_guid() from dual;

52BA7CF06BB488ECE040010A7C646200 52BA7CF06BB588ECE040010A7C646200
Categories: DBA Blogs


Sergio's Blog - Tue, 2008-09-30 10:10
Categories: DBA Blogs

Search Through Region Source in Application Express

Sergio's Blog - Tue, 2008-09-30 09:46

As I was working to migrate an application and its theme over to Application Express 3.1.2 from 2.1.2 I needed to move some images around and update the references accordingly. I remembered that the Application Builder has a feature to search through region source, which came in handy.

Here's where you can find it:

I could have used this type of feature to search through templates as well. If anyone from the APEX team is reading this...

Categories: DBA Blogs

Data Modeling with SQL Developer

Jared Still - Fri, 2008-09-26 00:33
Unlike Open World 2007 there were many database oriented sessions at Oracle Open World 2008. There were many good performance oriented sessions, so many in fact that there were several conflicts in the schedule, and I had to pick one in several time slots that had multiple choices.

One of the more interesting sessions (for me anyway) at OOW 2008 was a session not on database performance, but on data modeling.

The SQL Developer team has been hard at working creating a data modeling plugin for SQL Developer.

This appears to be a very full featured tool, and appears to be the answer to the question "What will replace Oracle Designer?"

While Designer is much more than a data modeling tool, that is one of the core features of the tool, and many folks have used it just for its data modeling capabilities.

The new ERD tool is no lightweight, it is quite full featured from a database modeling and design standpoint.

Some of the features included:
  • Domains generated from data
  • Real logical and physical modeling, not just one model with 2 different names.
  • The ability to reverse engineer several schemas at once and have them appear not only as a master model, but each individually as a sub model.
  • Sub model views may be created on sets of objects as well.
  • The tool can determine all tables related to a table through FKs and create a sub model based on that set.
  • Two forms of notation: Barker and IE
  • Many options for displaying sub/super types (D2k fans rejoice!)
  • Glossary - a predefined set of names. These can be used to enforce naming conventions for entities, tables and relations.
  • Schema comparison with DDL change generation
Also of note, in addition to Oracle schemas can be imported from SQL Server, DB2, or any ODBC connected database.

The repository can be either file based, or database based.
There are two versions of the tool, a plugin to SQL Developer, and a stand alone version. The stand alone version will use only the file based repository.

Now for the bad news.

The release date has not been established. The only release information given was 'sometime in the 2009 calendar year'. As the database repository has not yet been designed, the long time to release is understandable.

And finally, licensing has not been established. It might be free, it might not. If not, at least we can hope for reasonably priced. Personally I thinking having a decent data modeling tool that comes free of charge with SQL Developer would contribute to higher quality databases, as more people would use a real database designer rather than a drawing tool.

There was probably more that didn't make it into my notes.
Suffice it to say this is a great development for data modelers and database designers.

Following a few screen shots taken during the presentation.

Categories: DBA Blogs

oracle-validated RPM also available on Oracle Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2 media

Sergio's Blog - Thu, 2008-09-11 00:23

In the comments on my previous post on the Oracle validated RPM, Frank points out that this RPM is also available on the Oracle Enterprise Linux 5 installation media, starting with Update 2. You can download" Oracle Enterprise Linux from edelivery.

I learned something new today!

Categories: DBA Blogs

Where to Download Oracle VM Templates

Sergio's Blog - Mon, 2008-09-08 03:28

Wim recently blogged about Oracle VM Templates, announced a few weeks ago. If you're interested in them, you can download them from edelivery.oracle.com/oraclevm.


Categories: DBA Blogs


Sergio's Blog - Fri, 2008-08-29 05:51

Here's another post from the old blog, harvested from archive.org

The other day I was playing with some Python and cx_Oracle, a Python module for connecting to Oracle databases. While cx_Oracle seems to work great, I found the documentation light on examples. Because I follow Tom Kyte's advice closely, I was trying to instrument my code with some calls to DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO. As it turns out, the cx_Oracle connection object has write only attributes to set module, action, and clientinfo.

Here's a quick example of that in action (warning: newbie Python ahead)

-bash-3.00$ python
Python 2.3.4 (#1, Feb  2 2005, 11:44:49) 
[GCC 3.4.3 20041212 (Red Hat 3.4.3-9.EL4)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import cx_Oracle
>>> con=cx_Oracle.connect ("hr/hr")
>>> cur=con.cursor()
>>> con.module="python module"
>>> con.action="some big query"

>>> cur.execute ("select 1 from dual")
[<cx_Oracle.NUMBER with value None>]
>>> con.action=""
>>> con.module=""
>>> con.close()

Before closing the connection with con.close(), this is what was observed in the database:

SQL> select sid, module, action from v$session where module is not null 
  2  /
       SID MODULE                                           ACTION
---------- ------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------
        22 sqlplus@captain.us.oracle.com (TNS V1-V3)
        26 python module                                    some big query

Categories: DBA Blogs

oracle-validated RPMs now available outside of ULN

Sergio's Blog - Thu, 2008-08-28 09:10

For those of you who'd like to use the oracle-validated RPM, but don't have access to ULN, here they are:

Categories: DBA Blogs

AWR Usage Poll

Jared Still - Mon, 2008-08-18 14:04
A number of recent threads in the Oracle-L list have made it pretty clear that Automated Workload Repository (AWR) is a tool that you are expected to use when troubleshooting a database problem.

Never mind the fact that AWR is still a product that is licensed separately from the database, and that a large segment of the Oracle DBA population doesn't seem to realize that. Or that Active Session History (ASH) is part of AWR, and falls under the same license restrictions.

So I conducted a poll regarding the use of AWR. AWR Usage Poll. If you haven't in the AWR Poll, please do so.

While the web site does provide a chart of results, those results don't include the extra comments made by poll takers. You may are may not be able to download all the results, I'm not sure if that is restricted to the poll owner.

Nonetheless, I have compiled the results from a 100 or so respondents in to an Excel workbook, along with a few charts. You may find some of the additional comments of interest as well. AWR Usage Results

Draw your own conclusions regarding these results. I think it interesting to that AWR appears to be quite widely used. Personally I fall into the category of not using it because of the expense. I may work on changing that for a couple of key servers, as AWR is not that expensive, but in a small shop, spending $20k on feature that is not often needed is sometimes a hard sell.

One question I purposely left out was "Do you use AWR even though you have not licensed it"? While it might satisfy the curiosity of some (including me) I didn't want to give any Oracle sales people (or Oracle attorneys for that matter) any reasons to contact me regarding the poll.

In retrospect a good question would have been: "Did you realize AWR/ASH is a separately licensed product?". Too late to add that now, but bringing that up quite often leads to lively discussion.

Another interesting bit was that a few people have extended STATSPACK in some way, even using it on Oracle 10g+. One even mentioned the excellent repository of statspack scripts assembled by Tim Gorman. Tim Gorman's Statspack Scripts
Categories: DBA Blogs

An unusual cause of ORA-12154

Jared Still - Fri, 2008-08-01 17:30
The ORA-12154 (and its cousin ORA-12514) have been the bane of many a novice DBA.

This error is essentially telling you that you have messed up your database naming configuration, whether it be tnsnames, oracle names or OID. The fix is normally quite simple - just correct the naming.

This is usually quite easily done with netmgr, a tool that is fairly good at its job. The syntax for setting up a tnsname is a little convoluted, and I've fallen back on netmgr a number of times when I can't seem to get it just right by typing the entries in the file.

There's at least one other way to cause ORA-12154 to pop up and consume more time than you may like to admit. I won't tell how long I played with this...

The cause is actually due to security policy. While the characters !@#$%^&*()_-=+~` are not normally allowed in Oracle passwords, it is actually quite simple to include them. Simply enclose the password in double quotes.
alter user scott identified by "th!sat^st";

This was done on a number of accounts on our databases, all in the name of security.
These types of passwords have been used without issue for some time now.

Today was a notable exception.

After spending some time fiddling with tnsnames.ora files, I realized what the problem actually was.

Suppose you were to have a password with an '@' in it? Yep, that was the problem.
First let's see what it looks like from within sqlplus:

15:41:52 SQL> alter user scott identified by "what@mistake";

User altered.

15:42:03 SQL> connect scott/"what@mistake";

scott SQL> select user from dual;


SQL> connect scott/what@mistake
ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified

As long as the connect string was in double quotes, no problem.

Now let's try it from a linux command line:

Linux> sqlplus scott/'what@mistake'

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Fri Aug 1 15:42:20 2008

ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified

Linux> sqlplus scott/'what\@mistake'

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Fri Aug 1 15:46:14 2008

ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied

Linux> sqlplus scott/"what\@mistake"

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Fri Aug 1 15:46:21 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.

ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied

Linux> sqlplus 'scott/what\@mistake'

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Fri Aug 1 15:47:23 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.

ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied

Linux > sqlplus scott/what\@mistake

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Fri Aug 1 15:48:52 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.

ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified

There doesn't seem to be any method to use a password with the @ character in it, at least not from sqlplus. The same password works fine when used on the command line with perl script that logs on to the same database and account:

Linux> DBI_template.pl -database dv11 -username scott -password 'what@mistake'

The 'X' is the correct output as this script simply selects * from dual.

Lesson learned, do not ever, under any circumstances, use the @ character in the password for an Oracle database account.

You might think that goes without saying, but it's actually pretty easy to get a password with '@' in it when the passwords are generated random characters.

FWIW, this problem was manifested in Windows as well
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